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Eric Kunze and Miles A. Sundermeyer

; Sundermeyer et al. 2005 ; Lelong and Sundermeyer 2005 ; Sundermeyer and Lelong 2005 ) termed the vortical mode ( Müller 1984 ). Kinematic arguments and numerical simulations indicate that vortical-mode stirring should be more effective than vortical-mode shear dispersion, and that this stirring may be enhanced by upscale energy transfer of vortical-mode (PV) variance ( Sundermeyer et al. 2005 ; Brunner-Suzuki et al. 2014 ). Direct measurement of finescale vortical mode in the ocean has proven

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Ren-Chieh Lien and Thomas B. Sanford

small scales ( Müller 1984 ). The role of vortical motion on basin scales and mesoscales, and evidence for potential-vorticity-carrying finestructure in the ocean interior are discussed in Kunze and Lien (2019) . Vortical motion does not propagate and has kinematic and dynamic properties distinct from internal waves, as demonstrated by recent numerical model simulations of a collapsing wake ( Watanabe et al. 2016 ). While internal waves propagate away from the collapsing wake, total potential

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Andrey Y. Shcherbina, Miles A. Sundermeyer, Eric Kunze, Eric D’Asaro, Gualtiero Badin, Daniel Birch, Anne-Marie E. G. Brunner-Suzuki, Jörn Callies, Brandy T. Kuebel Cervantes, Mariona Claret, Brian Concannon, Jeffrey Early, Raffaele Ferrari, Louis Goodman, Ramsey R. Harcourt, Jody M. Klymak, Craig M. Lee, M.-Pascale Lelong, Murray D. Levine, Ren-Chieh Lien, Amala Mahadevan, James C. McWilliams, M. Jeroen Molemaker, Sonaljit Mukherjee, Jonathan D. Nash, Tamay Özgökmen, Stephen D. Pierce, Sanjiv Ramachandran, Roger M. Samelson, Thomas B. Sanford, R. Kipp Shearman, Eric D. Skyllingstad, K. Shafer Smith, Amit Tandon, John R. Taylor, Eugene A. Terray, Leif N. Thomas, and James R. Ledwell

-resolution, nearly synoptic surveys of the dye patches, from which ideas of the kinematics of dye dispersion at scales from 0.1 to 1 km may be formed. An unanticipated benefit of the lidar/dye work is a unique look at the evolution of a dye patch in the mixed layer, which provides evidence of stirring by a relatively recently recognized class of mixed layer instabilities ( Sundermeyer et al. 2014 ). The towed instruments, especially from the Moving Vessel Profiler on R/V Endeavor and Triaxus and Hammerhead on

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E. Kunze, J. M. Klymak, R.-C. Lien, R. Ferrari, C. M. Lee, M. A. Sundermeyer, and L. Goodman

than most previously reported [the wavelet analysis of Ferrari and Rudnick (2000) extended to wavelengths as small as 10 m (R. Ferrari 2014, personal communication), but these were not reported]. Where they overlap, spectra from the different platforms agree closely despite different instruments, measurement locations, processing, and spectral methods. Kinematically, a k 0 (flat) gradient spectrum is consistent with a step or front for scales larger than the front’s width ( Jenkins and Watts

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Angelique C. Haza, Tamay M. Özgökmen, Annalisa Griffa, Andrew C. Poje, and M.-Pascale Lelong

highlighted as a potential important error source for velocity gradients on the basis of kinematic flow fields ( Kirwan and Chang 1979 ), as well as from experience in field experiments ( Ohlmann et al. 2005 ), the impact of position and/or velocity errors on two-point dispersion estimates, especially at submesoscale separations, has not been analyzed in much detail. Drifter position errors require a detailed study because they may adversely impact observations of scale-dependent Lagrangian dispersion

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