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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn McMurdie, and Robert Conrick

windward (dark blue) domains used in the WRF CFADs. Lines denote the prefrontal (light green) and warm sector (dark green) DC-8 flight paths used in the APR-3 CFADs. The orange dot denotes the sounding launch location ( Table 3 ). The red lines denote the cross section in Figs. 8 , 9 and 10 . Darker gray shades over land denote higher terrain. The black outline over land denotes the Quinault River basin, which includes the Quinault valley. Model kinematic and thermodynamic output was validated by

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Robert A. Houze Jr., Lynn A. McMurdie, Walter A. Petersen, Mathew R. Schwaller, William Baccus, Jessica D. Lundquist, Clifford F. Mass, Bart Nijssen, Steven A. Rutledge, David R. Hudak, Simone Tanelli, Gerald G. Mace, Michael R. Poellot, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Angela K. Rowe, Jennifer C. DeHart, Luke E. Madaus, Hannah C. Barnes, and V. Chandrasekar

high terrain, and in the lee of the Olympic Mountains. Four scanning dual-polarization Doppler radars were deployed to observe the precipitation upwind of, over, and downwind of the mountains. These radars were operated in RHI sector mode to optimize the vertical resolution and thus map comprehensively kinematic and microphysical processes. WSR-88Ds at Langley Hill and Camano Island, Washington, provided horizontal context for the specialized research radars. Soundings were enhanced with frequent

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Robert Conrick, Clifford F. Mass, and Qi Zhong

circulation over the Crimean Peninsula . Atmos. Oceanic Phys. , 53 , 84 – 94 , https://doi.org/10.1134/S0001433817010042 . 10.1134/S0001433817010042 Friedrich , K. , D. E. Kingsmill , C. Flamant , H. V. Murphy , and R. M. Wakimoto , 2008 : Kinematic and moisture characteristics of a nonprecipitating cold front observed during IHOP. Part II: Alongfront structures . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 136 , 3796 – 3797 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2008MWR2360.1 . 10.1175/2008MWR2360.1 Fritts , D. C

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Hannah C. Barnes, Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, Angela K. Rowe, and Robert A. Houze Jr.

. Sci. , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-18-0073.1 , in press . 10.1175/JAS-D-18-0073.1 Dutton , J. , and H. A. Panofsky , 1970 : Clear air turbulence: A mystery may be unfolding . Science , 167 , 937 – 944 , https://doi.org/10.1126/science.167.3920.937 . 10.1126/science.167.3920.937 Friedrich , K. , D. E. Kingsmill , C. Flamant , H. V. Murphy , and R. M. Wakimoto , 2008 : Kinematic and moisture characteristics of a non-precipitating cold front observed during IHOP. Part II

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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, Robert A. Houze Jr., and Simone Tanelli

. , and R. A. Houze , 1995 : Three-dimensional kinematic and microphysical evolution of Florida cumulonimbus. Part II: Frequency distributions of vertical velocity, reflectivity, and differential reflectivity . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 123 , 1941 – 1963 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123<1941:TDKAME>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123<1941:TDKAME>2.0.CO;2 Zagrodnik , J. P. , L. A. McMurdie , and R. A. Houze , 2018 : Stratiform precipitation processes in cyclones passing over a

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Annareli Morales, Hugh Morrison, and Derek J. Posselt

, C. , K. Ikeda , G. Thompson , R. Rasmussen , and J. Dudhia , 2011 : High-resolution simulations of wintertime precipitation in the Colorado headwaters region: Sensitivity to physics parameterizations . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 139 , 3533 – 3553 , https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-11-00009.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-11-00009.1 Marwitz , J. D. , 1987 : Deep orographic storms over the Sierra Nevada. Part I: Thermodynamic and kinematic structure . J. Atmos. Sci. , 44 , 159 – 173 , https

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Stephanie M. Wingo, Walter A. Petersen, Patrick N. Gatlin, Charanjit S. Pabla, David A. Marks, and David B. Wolff

: Developing high-quality field program sounding datasets . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 93 , 325 – 336 , https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00091.1 . 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00091.1 Cifelli , R. , W. Petersen , L. Carey , and S. Rutledge , 2002 : Radar observations of the kinematic, microphysical, and precipitation characteristics of two MCSs in TRMM LBA . J. Geophys. Res. , 170 , 8077 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD000264 . 10.1029/2000JD000264 Collis , S. , A. Protat , and K.-S. Chung

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Bin Pei and Firat Y. Testik

, L. D. Carey , and S. A. Rutledge , 2002 : Radar observations of the kinematic, microphysical, and precipitation characteristics of two MCSs in TRMM LBA . J. Geophys. Res. , 107 , 8077 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD000264 . 10.1029/2000JD000264 Cifelli , R. , V. Chandresekar , S. Lim , P. C. Kennedy , Y. Wang , and S. A. Rutledge , 2011 : A new dual-polarization radar rainfall algorithm: Application in Colorado precipitation events . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol

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