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Hilke S. Lentink, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, and Sarah C. Jones

Appalachians can enhance precipitation during ET ( Jones et al. 2003 ; DiMego and Bosart 1982a , b ; Bosart and Dean 1991 ; Srock and Bosart 2009 ; Atallah and Bosart 2003 ). Nevertheless, documented case studies of ET near land mainly mention enhanced precipitation on the large scale due to forced ascent along an orographic barrier. Not much is known about the effect of orography on the kinematic and thermodynamic changes in structure of the transitioning cyclone, both on the large and mesoscales, and

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Lisa-Ann Quandt, Julia H. Keller, Olivia Martius, and Sarah C. Jones

for predicting the fire risk in the United States, it has also been employed successfully outside the United States, for example, in South Korea ( Choi et al. 2006 ) and Australia ( McCaw et al. 2007 ). REFERENCES Anwender, D. , Harr P. A. , and Jones S. C. , 2008 : Predictability associated with the downstream impacts of the extratropical transition of tropical cyclones: Case studies . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 136 , 3226 – 3247 , doi: 10.1175/2008MWR2249.1 . Arakawa, H. , 1952 : Kinematics

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Julian F. Quinting, Michael M. Bell, Patrick A. Harr, and Sarah C. Jones

space. Radar-derived radial winds from ELDORA, dropsonde winds and temperatures, and satellite-based atmospheric motion vectors were analyzed with the recently developed Spline Analysis at Mesoscale Utilizing Radar and Aircraft Instrumentation (SAMURAI) software tool ( Bell et al. 2012 ). This tool is based on a three-dimensional variational data assimilation approach that analyzes observations of various airborne instruments to obtain the most probable kinematic and thermodynamic state of the

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Julian F. Quinting and Sarah C. Jones

– 3949 , doi: 10.1175/2007MWR2096.1 . Moore , J. T. , and G. E. Vanknowe , 1992 : The effect of jet-streak curvature on kinematic fields . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 120 , 2429 – 2441 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1992)120<2429:TEOJSC>2.0.CO;2 . Nieto Ferreira , R. , and W. H. Schubert , 1999 : The role of tropical cyclones in the formation of tropical upper-tropospheric troughs . J. Atmos. Sci. , 56 , 2891 – 2907 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1999)056<2891:TROTCI>2.0.CO;2 . Orlanski , I. , and J. P

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<1817:TEADRO>2.0.CO;2 Pyle , M. E. , D. Keyser , and L. F. Bosart , 2004 : A diagnostic study of jet streaks: Kinematic signatures and relationship to coherent tropopause disturbances . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 132 , 297 – 319 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<0297:ADSOJS>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<0297:ADSOJS>2.0.CO;2 Quinting , J. F. , and S. C. Jones , 2016 : On the impact of tropical cyclones on Rossby wave packets: A

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