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T. Connor Nelson, James Marquis, Adam Varble, and Katja Friedrich

shorter length scales (<30 km; Fig. 2a ), particularly for the kinematic variables ( Fig. 2b ). Larger variability in the boundary layer is perhaps expected when considering variable land cover, complex topography across the region, and generally smaller scales of circulations controlling the kinematic and thermodynamic properties at low levels. Consecutively launched soundings generally are temporally uncorrelated between 1 and 4 h both prior to and after CI within the free troposphere ( Fig. 2d

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Robert J. Trapp, Karen A. Kosiba, James N. Marquis, Matthew R. Kumjian, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Joshua Wurman, Paola Salio, Maxwell A. Grover, Paul Robinson, and Deanna A. Hence

.1175/1520-0434(2000)015<0061:PSMUAN>2.0.CO;2 Cecil , D. , and C. Blankenship , 2012 : Toward a global climatology of severe hailstorms as estimated by satellite passive microwave imagers . J. Climate , 25 , 687 – 703 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00130.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00130.1 Chisholm , A. J. , and J. H. Renick , 1972 : The kinematics of multicell and supercell Alberta hailstorms. Alberta hail studies, Research Council of Alberta Hail Studies, Rep. 72–2 , 24 – 31 . Damiani , R. , G. Vali , and S

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Matthew R. Kumjian, Rachel Gutierrez, Joshua S. Soderholm, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paula Maldonado, Lorena Medina Luna, James Marquis, Kevin A. Bowley, Milagros Alvarez Imaz, and Paola Salio

and kinematic profiles at Villa Carlos Paz and SACO at 1200 UTC are qualitatively similar, with minimal MUCAPE (∼300 J kg ‒1 ), although a weaker capping inversion than observed) and a hodograph indicating small values (−47 m 2 s ‒2 ) of 0–3-km storm-relative helicity (SRH). However, the simulation indicates an evolution toward an environment more conducive to supercells at Villa Carlos Paz during the subsequent 8-h period. Instability increases through the development of a deep mixed layer

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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Paola V. Salio

events. DSC events also display the greatest magnitudes of mean MLCAPE and mean vertical wind shear to the east of the SDC. The MUN events display the weakest mean MLCAPE, generally under ~750 J kg −1 ( Fig. 14b ). MCS events are similar to DSC events in their thermodynamic and kinematic environments, with average MLCAPE and shear magnitudes of ~1000–1500 J kg −1 and 30–35 kt, respectively ( Fig. 14a ). The local maximum in MLCAPE in the northwest corner of the 7° × 7° domain in both MCS and DSC

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Zachary S. Bruick, Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Daniel J. Cecil

Topographic Laboratories Studies of the Army Aviation V/STOL Environment Rep. 8, 16 pp . Yuter , S. E. , and R. A. Houze , 1995 : Three-dimensional kinematic and microphysical evolution of Florida cumulonimbus. Part II: Frequency distributions of vertical velocity, reflectivity, and differential reflectivity . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 123 , 1941 – 1963 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123<1941:TDKAME>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123<1941:TDKAME>2.0.CO;2 Zhang , C. , Q. Zhang , and Y

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Zachary S. Bruick, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Angela K. Rowe, and Lynn A. McMurdie

western Pacific . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 34 , L21806 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL030758 . 10.1029/2007GL030758 Yuter , S. E. , and R. A. Houze , 1995 : Three-dimensional kinematic and microphysical evolution of Florida cumulonimbus. Part II: Frequency distributions of vertical velocity, reflectivity, and differential reflectivity . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 123 , 1941 – 1963 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123<1941:TDKAME>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123<1941:TDKAME>2.0.CO;2

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Sujan Pal, Francina Dominguez, María Eugenia Dillon, Javier Alvarez, Carlos Marcelo Garcia, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and David Gochis

been provided by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant 1641167 “RELAMPAGO Hydrometeorology Component: Land Surface Controls on Heavy Precipitation and Flooding in the Carcarañá River Basin, Argentina” and 1661799 “Using RELAMPAGO Observations to Understand the Thermodynamic, Kinematic, and Dynamic Processes Leading to Heavy Precipitation.” We are thankful to the University of Córdoba and the Ministry of Public services form the Córdoba province for providing the streamflow measuring

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