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Jie Feng and Xuguang Wang

Dougherty 2006 ; Zhang et al. 2015 ) predictions. These studies generally concluded that the improved TC intensity and structure forecasts mainly stem from the more realistic depiction of the TC finescale kinematic and thermodynamic structure and evolution due to the increase of model resolution. However, most of these studies are solely focused on the effect of model resolution during free forecasts by simply interpolating the initial analysis to higher resolution before initializing the numerical

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Yi Dai, Sharanya J. Majumdar, and David S. Nolan

tropical storm . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 138 , 3869 – 3885 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2010MWR3378.1 . 10.1175/2010MWR3378.1 Nguyen , L. T. , R. F. Rogers , and P. D. Reasor , 2017 : Thermodynamic and kinematic influences on precipitation symmetry in sheared tropical cyclones: Bertha and Cristobal (2014) . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 145 , 4423 – 4446 , https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-17-0073.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-17-0073.1 Nolan , D. S. , 2011 : Evaluating environmental favorableness for tropical cyclone

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David R. Ryglicki, Daniel Hodyss, and Gregory Rainwater

and to explore some of the kinematics associated with atypical RI more carefully using a hierarchy of analyses: satellite observations, reanalyses, an analytical representation, a shallow water model, and a full-physics primitive equation model. The paper is laid out as follows. Section 2 describes the data and method, including descriptions of the models used. Section 3 provides a review of the features of atypical RI, revisiting manifestations of its behavior in satellite observations

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Jie Feng and Xuguang Wang

Hawk (GH) was used to release dropsondes to collect kinematic and thermodynamic observations in both the inner-core region and the environment at a much higher altitude (~18 km) than the G-IV aircraft ( Hock and Franklin 1999 ). These GH dropsonde observations can better depict the structure and evolution of the upper-level outflow and warm core compared to the G-IV dropsondes. Detailed comparisons of the above observations are summarized in Table 1 . Table 1. Comparisons of different types of

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Jonathan Martinez, Michael M. Bell, Robert F. Rogers, and James D. Doyle

calculate both kinematic and thermodynamic gradients. Because of these limitations, observational studies have typically used vertical vorticity as a proxy for PV. Doppler radar data and in situ measurements have been utilized in both composite and case studies to demonstrate that intensifying TCs are characterized by a ringlike structure of vorticity with a maximum located off the axis of rotation, radially inward of the RMW ( Kossin and Eastin 2001 ; Rogers et al. 2013a , 2015 ; Martinez et al

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T. Connor Nelson, Lee Harrison, and Kristen L. Corbosiero

vertical velocity, serves a critical role in understanding the kinematic and convective environments of the TCs observed during TCI. The results presented here are a preliminary step at evaluating sonde-derived vertical velocities from the XDDs in TCs. The unprecedented high temporal and spatial resolution of these sondes during TCI allowed for analysis of the vertical velocities in Marty, Joaquin, and Patricia. These results serve as documentation of the strength and location of vertical velocities

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David R. Ryglicki, Joshua H. Cossuth, Daniel Hodyss, and James D. Doyle

differentiate thoroughly how this group of atypical TCs differs from so-called “classic” RI TCs ( Knaff 2008 ; Kaplan et al. 2015 ) and to provide information on RI precursors that can be deduced from satellite and model analyses. Some of the kinematic details of TCAs are explored in Part II , though we can briefly state that these features are collections of buoyant convective towers localized by the vertical structure of a TC in shear and enhanced by the nutations on the longer tilt precession. In

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Robert L. Creasey and Russell L. Elsberry

Patricia, Joaquin, and Marty. 32nd Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology , San Juan, PR, Amer. Meteor. Soc. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/32Hurr/webprogram/Paper292860.html .] Marks , F. D. , Jr. , R. A. Houze Jr. , and J. F. Garmache , 1992 : Dual-aircraft investigation of the inner core of Hurricane Norbert. Part I: Kinematic structure . J. Atmos. Sci. , 49 , 919 – 942 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1992)049<0919:DAIOTI>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1992)049<0919:DAIOTI>2

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James D. Doyle, Jonathan R. Moskaitis, Joel W. Feldmeier, Ronald J. Ferek, Mark Beaubien, Michael M. Bell, Daniel L. Cecil, Robert L. Creasey, Patrick Duran, Russell L. Elsberry, William A. Komaromi, John Molinari, David R. Ryglicki, Daniel P. Stern, Christopher S. Velden, Xuguang Wang, Todd Allen, Bradford S. Barrett, Peter G. Black, Jason P. Dunion, Kerry A. Emanuel, Patrick A. Harr, Lee Harrison, Eric A. Hendricks, Derrick Herndon, William Q. Jeffries, Sharanya J. Majumdar, James A. Moore, Zhaoxia Pu, Robert F. Rogers, Elizabeth R. Sanabia, Gregory J. Tripoli, and Da-Lin Zhang

kinematic and thermodynamic profiles ( Hock and Franklin 1999 ) and X-band tail Doppler radar measurements of kinematic and precipitation structure. The combination of high-density, high-altitude dropsonde measurements and wide-swath surface wind speed measurements from the WB-57, along with the Doppler radar measurements from the WP-3D provided a unique depiction of Patricia’s structure ( Rogers et al. 2017 ). During the IFEX flights, the WP-3D aircraft also featured a C-band lower-fuselage radar that

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David R. Ryglicki, James D. Doyle, Yi Jin, Daniel Hodyss, and Joshua H. Cossuth

, 2011 : The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 137 , 553 – 597 , https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.828 . 10.1002/qj.828 DeHart , J. C. , R. A. Houze , and R. F. Rogers , 2014 : Quadrant distribution of tropical cyclone inner-core kinematics in relation to environmental shear . J. Atmos. Sci. , 71 , 2713 – 2732 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-13-0298.1 . 10.1175/JAS-D-13-0298.1 DeMaria , M. , 1996 : The

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