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John Molinari and David Vollaro

cyclogenesis. J. Atmos. Sci. , 63 , 355 – 386 . Powell , M. D. , 1990 : Boundary layer structure and dynamics in outer hurricane rainbands. Part I: Mesoscale rainfall and kinematic structure. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 118 , 891 – 917 . Ramsay , H. A. , and C. A. Doswell , 2005 : A sensitivity study of hodograph-based methods for estimating supercell motion. Wea. Forecasting , 20 , 954 – 970 . Rasmussen , E. N. , and D. O. Blanchard , 1998 : A baseline climatology of sounding

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Chanh Q. Kieu and Da-Lin Zhang

intensity. The objectives of the present study are (i) to examine the kinematics of the vortex merger in relation to convectively generated vortices (CGVs) in the ITCZ and the associated multiscale interactive processes; (ii) to quantify the roles of merging MCVs, surface heat fluxes, and PV sources in the ITCZ in the formation of TS Eugene (2005); and (iii) to determine whether or not TCG from merging MCVs would occur from the bottom upward or the top downward. These objectives will be achieved by

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Robert Rogers

kinematic structures of strong tropical cyclones simulated with the WRF-ARW model. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 137 , 3717 – 3743 . Fierro , A. O. , R. F. Rogers , F. D. Marks Jr. , and D. Nolan , 2010 : Impact of horizontal grid spacing on simulated tropical cyclone microphysical and kinematic structure. Mon. Wea. Rev. , in press . Gamache , J. F. , and R. A. Houze Jr. , 1982 : Mesoscale air motions associated with a tropical squall line. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 110 , 118 – 135 . Gentry

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Gerald M. Heymsfield, Lin Tian, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Lihua Li, and Stephen Guimond

1. Introduction Measurements of updraft characteristics are important for understanding fundamental kinematic and microphysical processes in deep convection. These measurements are often difficult to obtain from in situ observations because of the transient nature of updrafts and the safety concerns arising from aircraft penetrating convective cores. Consequently, there have been relatively few comparisons between numerically simulated and measured vertical motions through the full depth of

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Oreste Reale, William K. Lau, Kyu-Myong Kim, and Eugenia Brin

kinematic features, such as the increasingly narrow structure of the dry air filaments being intruded in a tropical circulation and the sharpness of the boundaries between Saharan and non-Saharan air. In this work, we explore processes associated with two waves that were observed during the Special Observing Phase (SOP-3) of NAMMA, with the aid of the global data assimilation and forecasting system called the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5). Of particular concern for this article

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Robert Cifelli, Timothy Lang, Steven A. Rutledge, Nick Guy, Edward J. Zipser, Jon Zawislak, and Robert Holzworth

. Part I: Kinematic structure inferred from dual-Doppler radar data. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 115 , 670 – 694 . Cifelli , R. , S. W. Nesbitt , S. A. Rutledge , W. A. Petersen , and S. Yuter , 2007 : Radar characteristics of precipitation features in the EPIC and TEPPS regions of the east Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 135 , 1576 – 1595 . Diedhiou , A. , S. Janicot , A. Viltard , P. de Felice , and H. Laurent , 1999 : Easterly wave regimes and associated convection over West

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Scott A. Braun, Michael T. Montgomery, Kevin J. Mallen, and Paul D. Reasor

study describes a numerical modeling study of the genesis of Gert, with an emphasis on the evolution of its precipitation, kinematic, and thermodynamic structures. Specifically, we seek to elucidate the roles of well-resolved convective and stratiform precipitation processes in the generation of potential vorticity within the storm and the development of surface circulation leading to genesis. 2. Methodology and data description a. Model setup This study employs the Advanced Research version of the

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Zhaoxia Pu, Xuanli Li, and Juanzhen Sun

, R. Hood , and A. Guillory , 2006 : Overview of the Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX). J. Atmos. Sci. , 63 , 5 – 18 . Kessler , E. , 1969 : On the Distribution and Continuity of Water Substance in Atmospheric Circulation . Meteor. Monogr., No. 32, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84 pp . Kossin , J. P. , and M. D. Eastin , 2001 : Two distinct regimes in the kinematic and thermodynamic structure of the hurricane eye and eyewall. J. Atmos. Sci. , 58 , 1079 – 1090 . Landsea

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Chanh Q. Kieu and Da-Lin Zhang

associated with the ITCZ. Because of the two different sizes and kinematical characteristics of V 1 and V 2 , it is also desirable to see if V 1 could develop into TS intensity in the absence of V 2 . However, removing the vortical flows of V 2 is not as straightforward as those of V 1 because V 2 is not well defined at the initial time. Although the initial vorticity field given in Fig. 1a appears to indicate two smaller-scale vortices within an area (circled) where V 2 develops, a closed

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Zhuo Wang, M. T. Montgomery, and T. J. Dunkerton

strain/shear deformation within the wave critical layer, favoring the creation and preservation of coherent vortex structures at the meso- β scale. Its kinematic structure protects, to some extent, the convective cells inside the pouch from the hostile exterior environment [e.g., dry air associated with the Saharan air layer (SAL)]. The air within the pouch is repeatedly moistened by convection, which in turn provides a favorable environment for deep moist convection. As noted above, the pouch

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