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Tobias Kremer, Elmar Schömer, Christian Euler, and Michael Riemer

in this cluster), can be explained based on the general kinematic structure of vertical-shear flows ( Willoughby et al. 1984 ; Riemer and Montgomery 2011 ). Tropospheric-deep vertical shear implies that the storm-relative environmental flow changes sign at some midtropospheric steering level, with downshear flow in the upper troposphere and upshear flow in the lower troposphere. Small storm-relative environmental flow in the vicinity of the steering level, combined with Karl’s vortical flow

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Hilke S. Lentink, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, and Sarah C. Jones

Appalachians can enhance precipitation during ET ( Jones et al. 2003 ; DiMego and Bosart 1982a , b ; Bosart and Dean 1991 ; Srock and Bosart 2009 ; Atallah and Bosart 2003 ). Nevertheless, documented case studies of ET near land mainly mention enhanced precipitation on the large scale due to forced ascent along an orographic barrier. Not much is known about the effect of orography on the kinematic and thermodynamic changes in structure of the transitioning cyclone, both on the large and mesoscales, and

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Julian F. Quinting and Christian M. Grams

; Browning and Roberts 1994 ). To quantify this concept of WCBs, Wernli and Davies (1997) introduced a Lagrangian method based on three-dimensional kinematic trajectory calculations. With this approach, WCBs are defined as a set of trajectories along which the specific humidity decreases in 48 h by at least 10 g kg −1 ( Wernli and Davies 1997 ) or which ascend in 48 h by at least 600 hPa ( Madonna et al. 2014b ). This Lagrangian approach is widely used and the analysis of physical processes along the

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Christian Euler, Michael Riemer, Tobias Kremer, and Elmar Schömer

-0112.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-16-0112.1 Riehl , H. , 1954 : Tropical Meteorology . McGraw-Hill, 392 pp. Riemer , M. , and M. T. Montgomery , 2011 : Simple kinematic models for the environmental interaction of tropical cyclones in vertical wind shear . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 11 , 9395 – 9414 , https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-9395-2011 . 10.5194/acp-11-9395-2011 Riemer , M. , and F. Laliberté , 2015 : Secondary circulation of tropical cyclones in vertical wind shear: Lagrangian diagnostic and

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<1817:TEADRO>2.0.CO;2 Pyle , M. E. , D. Keyser , and L. F. Bosart , 2004 : A diagnostic study of jet streaks: Kinematic signatures and relationship to coherent tropopause disturbances . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 132 , 297 – 319 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<0297:ADSOJS>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<0297:ADSOJS>2.0.CO;2 Quinting , J. F. , and S. C. Jones , 2016 : On the impact of tropical cyclones on Rossby wave packets: A

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