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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

from kinematic forcing from convergence and destabilization due to the propagation of the cooling phase of the tropical land breeze as a diurnal gravity wave (e.g., Mapes et al. 2003 ; Hassim et al. 2016 ; Vincent and Lane 2016a ). As discussed by Vincent and Lane (2016a) , such effects will only lead to deep convection in the presence of sufficient moisture, which is more abundant during the MJO active and lead-up phases. The previous section showed that the WRF Model simulations are producing

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

variables, and propose causal mechanisms for how intraseasonal anomalies in atmospheric thermodynamic and kinematic conditions relate to the convective structure of the MJO. 2. Simulation details CRMs can directly represent the mesoscale characteristics of clouds without convective parameterizations, which permits an evaluation of how the state of the atmosphere influences the development and evolution of cloud structures. The capability of CRMs to capture the evolution of cloud features on a structured

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Shijian Hu, Ying Zhang, Ming Feng, Yan Du, Janet Sprintall, Fan Wang, Dunxin Hu, Qiang Xie, and Fei Chai

/temperature data by least squares fitting of the MITgcm ( Fukumori et al. 2017 ; Forget et al. 2016 ; Forget et al. 2015 ; Wunsch et al. 2009 ; Wunsch and Heimbach 2007 ). The adjoint-based ECCO satisfies the equations of motion and conservation laws without artificial internal heat and freshwater sources/sinks ( Wunsch and Heimbach 2013 ), thus ECCO is a dynamically and kinematically consistent state estimate. This feature enables term-by-term diagnostics of the salinity budget to explore the dynamic

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See Yee Lim, Charline Marzin, Prince Xavier, Chih-Pei Chang, and Bertrand Timbal

Philippines. Thus the area is affected by southerly winds resulting in decreased rainfall. Overall the resemblance noted on the NDJF mean between the CS only and combined CS and MJO influences remain valid at the monthly time scale for all months albeit with more noise due to the reduced sampling and the rarity of combined CS and MJO days. d. Kinematic interaction between CSs and the MJO Besides the joint impact of CSs and the MJO on convection and rainfall, the interaction in the dynamic structures of

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Ewan Short, Claire L. Vincent, and Todd P. Lane

the key results and propagation speeds are consistent with earlier studies, this study highlights subtle differences in the relationship between precipitation and land–sea breeze circulations along different coastlines, demonstrating a complicated blend of orographic forcing, background flow, and sea-breeze kinematics. The RSCAT and CSCAT Hovmöller diagrams presented in section 3 provide two independent estimates of the diurnal cycle of surface winds near straight coastlines of the Maritime

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