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  • Air–Sea Interactions from the Diurnal to the Intraseasonal during the PISTON, MISOBOB, and CAMP2Ex Observational Campaigns in the Tropics x
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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

a method that predicts wave kinematics near the surface that is accurate to second order. Their complete method is beyond the scope of this study, but we note that our approach is equivalent to the deep water limit of their first-order correction [their O ( ϵ ) solution]. To move from monochromatic waves to a broadband wave field, we invoke the Fourier transform F of η and the wavenumber to frequency conversion from linear wave theory: (B5) F [ η ⁡ ( t ) ] = η ^ ⁡ ( f )   and (B6) k = 4 π 2

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

variables, and propose causal mechanisms for how intraseasonal anomalies in atmospheric thermodynamic and kinematic conditions relate to the convective structure of the MJO. 2. Simulation details CRMs can directly represent the mesoscale characteristics of clouds without convective parameterizations, which permits an evaluation of how the state of the atmosphere influences the development and evolution of cloud structures. The capability of CRMs to capture the evolution of cloud features on a structured

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

resolution profile measurements . Ocean Sci. , 9 , 977 – 986 , https://doi.org/10.5194/os-9-977-2013 . 10.5194/os-9-977-2013 Shcherbina , A. Y. , E. A. D’Asaro , and R. R. Harcourt , 2019 : Rain and sun create slippery layers in the Eastern Pacific fresh pool . Oceanography , 32 , 98 – 107 , https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2019.217 . 10.5670/oceanog.2019.217 Smit , P. B. , T. T. Janssen , and T. H. C. Herbers , 2017 : Nonlinear wave kinematics near the ocean surface . J. Phys

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Sebastian Essink, Verena Hormann, Luca R. Centurioni, and Amala Mahadevan

by mixed layer instabilities. Since dispersion statistics are often not conclusive in inferring an energy spectrum from pair statistics, particularly at small scales, more information about the flow field is needed. Multiple drifter statistics and clusters can help to map velocity gradients to further characterize the kinematics of a flow field. Velocity gradients are especially important in submesoscale flows, where the local Rossby number becomes O ⁡ ( 1 ) . Analyses of multiple drifters have

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