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Frank D. Marks Jr.

Abstract

Radar played an important role in studies of tropical cyclones since it was developed in the 1940s. In the last 15 years, technological improvements such as the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D tail airborne Doppler radar, the operational Weather Service Radar 1988-Doppler (WSR-88D) radar network, portable Doppler radars, and the first spaceborne radar system on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (NASA TRMM) satellite have produced a new generation of tropical cyclone data whose analysis has given scientists an unprecedented opportunity to document the dynamics and rainfall of tropical cyclones, and has led to improved understanding of these devastating storms.

The NOAA WP-3D airborne Doppler datasets led to improved understanding of the symmetric vortex and the major asymmetries. The addition of a second airborne Doppler radar on the other WP-3D enabled true dual-Doppler analyses and the ability to study the temporal evolution of the Kinematic structure over 3–6 h. The advent of the WSR-88D Doppler radar network, and the construction of portable Doppler radars that can be moved to a location near tropical cyclone landfall, has also generated new and unique datasets enabling improved understanding of 1) severe weather events associated with landfalling tropical cyclones, 2) boundary layer wind structure as the storm moves from over the sea to over land, and 3) spatial and temporal changes in the storm rain distribution. The WP-3D airborne Doppler and WSR-88D data have also been instrumental in developing a suite of operational single Doppler radar algorithms to objectively analyze a tropical cyclone's wind field by determining the storm location and defining the primary, secondary, and major asymmetric circulations. These algorithms are used operationally on the WP-3D aircraft and on the ground at NOAA's Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center.

The WSR-88D rainfall data, together with new satellite microwave passive and active sensors on the NASA TRMM satellite, are proving useful in studies of the temporal and spatial variability of rain in tropical cyclones. The instantaneous satellite snapshots provide rain estimates to improve our understanding of tropical cyclone rain distributions globally, providing estimates from one instrument and common algorithms in each basin, while the WSR-88D provides high-temporal-resolution rain estimates (1 h), to improve our understanding of the temporal variability of the rain as the storm makes landfall.

While these new datasets have led to improved understanding, they have also led to a number of new challenges that the radar meteorology community must face by transferring the understanding gained into new applications and improved numerical weather prediction. These challenges will drive our science well into the next century.

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David Randall, Charlotte DeMott, Cristiana Stan, Marat Khairoutdinov, James Benedict, Rachel McCrary, Katherine Thayer-Calder, and Mark Branson

summer of 1979. Part I: Precipitation and kinematic analyses . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 111 , 922 – 944 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1983)111<0922:TLSCAH>2.0.CO;2 . Luo , H. , and M. Yanai , 1984 : The large-scale circulation and heat sources over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas during the early summer of 1979. Part II: Heat and moisture budgets . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 112 , 966 – 989 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1984)112<0966:TLSCAH>2.0.CO;2 . Luo , J. , and G. L. Stephens , 2006 : An

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Robert A. Houze Jr.

-12. Conceptual model of the kinematic, microphysical, and radar echo structure of a convective line with trailing-stratiform precipitation viewed in a vertical cross section oriented perpendicular to the convective line (and generally parallel to its motion). Medium and dark shading indicate intermediate and strong radar reflectivities. Adapted from Houze et al. (1989) . In the stratiform region, the general ascending mesoscale flow lies over the layer of general descent of the mesoscale downdraft, which is

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Isaac M. Held

cascades, as exemplified by the early work of Green (1970) and Stone (1972) . One can think of these theories as providing expressions for a kinematic thermal diffusivity associated with the macroturbulence of the troposphere of the form , where V and L are characteristic eddy length and velocity scales. Even if no clear-cut scale separation between eddies and their larger-scale environment exists, the diffusivity can be thought of as a convenient way to express the dependence of the heat flux

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Steven K. Esbensen, Jan-Hwa Chu, Wen-wen Tung, and Robert G. Fovell

temperature over the Eurasian continent . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 127 , 909 – 937 , doi: 10.1002/qj.49712757311 . Liu , X. , and M. Yanai , 2002 : Influence of Eurasian spring snow cover on Asian summer rainfall . Int. J. Climatol. , 22 , 1075 – 1089 , doi: 10.1002/joc.784 . Luo , H. , and M. Yanai , 1983 : The large-scale circulation and heat sources over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas during the early summer of 1979. Part I: Precipitation and kinematic analyses . Mon

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, and Thomas M. Rickenbach

. Johnson , 1996 : Kinematic and thermodynamic characteristics of the flow over the western Pacific warm pool during TOGA COARE . J. Atmos. Sci. , 53 , 695 – 715 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1996)053<0695:KATCOT>2.0.CO;2 . Luo , H. , and M. Yanai , 1984 : The large-scale circulation and heat sources over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas during the early summer of 1979. Part II: Heat and moisture budgets . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 112 , 966 – 989 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1984)112<0966:TLSCAH>2

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Minghua Zhang, Richard C. J. Somerville, and Shaocheng Xie

. , 130 , 3339 – 3364 , doi: 10.1256/qj.03.122 . Lin , W. , and Coauthors , 2015 : RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. Part III: Separation of parameterization biases in single-column model CAM5 simulations of shallow cumulus . J. Geophys. Res. , 120 , 6015 – 6033 , doi: 10.1002/2014JD022524 . Lin , X. , and R. H. Johnson , 1996 : Kinematic and thermodynamic characteristics of the flow over the western Pacific warm pool during TOGA COARE . J. Atmos. Sci. , 53 , 695

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Lee-Lueng Fu, Tong Lee, W. Timothy Liu, and Ronald Kwok

backscattered from the small centimeter waves (including capillary waves), which are believed to be in equilibrium with the surface stress. The initial geophysical model functions relate measured normalized radar cross section σ o to the frictional velocity u * =( τ / ρ ) 1/2 , representing kinematic stress ( Jones and Schroeder 1978 ). The data products of the scatterometer on Seasat were calibrated against measured stress ( Liu and Large 1981 ). Table 5-1. Past and current scatterometers. [From Liu

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W.-K. Tao, Y. N. Takayabu, S. Lang, S. Shige, W. Olson, A. Hou, G. Skofronick-Jackson, X. Jiang, C. Zhang, W. Lau, T. Krishnamurti, D. Waliser, M. Grecu, P. E. Ciesielski, R. H. Johnson, R. Houze, R. Kakar, K. Nakamura, S. Braun, S. Hagos, R. Oki, and A. Bhardwaj

large-scale horizontal averages. The right-hand side (RHS) is the total derivative of θ , the potential temperature, (times the nondimensional pressure) measurable from radiosonde data. Here the large-scale vertical motion w is diagnosed from the horizontal winds via the kinematic method with appropriate boundary conditions on w at the surface and the tropopause. There is an accompanying equation for the apparent moisture sink or drying ( Q 2 ), which is similar to Eq. (2-1) except that is

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Kerry Emanuel

Doppler-derived airflow). Dropsondes deployed from research and reconnaissance aircraft have provided much valuable information about the thermodynamic and kinematic structure of tropical cyclones. A large advance was made in 1997, when the Omega system, which tracked sondes using ground-based radio transmission, was replaced by the global positioning system (GPS), enabling wind measurements of much higher accuracy and frequency. Perhaps the most remarkable advances were in satellite remote sensing

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