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Anthony C. Didlake Jr. and Robert A. Houze Jr.

-level observations and radar reflectivity data, which are insufficient for a complete kinematic description. More complete observations of the secondary eyewall are needed in order to highlight important processes that govern the overall dynamics of this feature and to ensure that models are accurately simulating eyewall replacement cycles for the correct reasons. During the Hurricane Rainband and Intensity Change Experiment (RAINEX; Houze et al. 2006 , 2007 ) in 2005, high-resolution aircraft observations of

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Shyh-Chin Chen

of the atmosphere to the kinematic effects of orographicforcing by, in particular, the Tibetan Plateau-Himalayan Mountain complex. Theoretical scaling argumentsare used to deduce a critical mountain height h~ beyond which the component of flow around will dominatethat over the orography. The h~ is proportional to the meridional scale of the orography and depends on latitude.For north-south scales appropriate for the Himalayas hc ~ 1.5 km which is much less than the actual heightof 3706 m when

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Guglielmo Lacorata, Andrea Mazzino, and Umberto Rizza

spatiotemporal scales comparable to the characteristic spatiotemporal scales of an LES domain. Asymptotic eddy diffusion is indeed unaffected by the small-scale details of the dynamics. Turbulent-like motions of particles can be generated by either stochastic models of dispersion ( Thomson 1987 ) or kinematic models like, for example, a series of unsteady random Fourier modes ( Fung et al. 1992 ; Fung and Vassilicos 1998 ). Our aim here is to exploit the possibility of a fully deterministic nonlinear

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Fay Luxford and Tim Woollings

of the jet will have an enhanced positive tail, which is often interpreted as a signature of blocking anticyclones ( Nakamura and Wallace 1991 ). Similarly, the distribution at an equatorward grid point will have an enhanced negative tail, which is often attributed to cutoff low pressure systems. In this paper, however, we suggest that this pattern of skewness can arise as a simple kinematic consequence of the presence of jet streams. That skewness should be expected to naturally accompany jet

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P. H. Haynes, D. A. Poet, and E. F. Shuckburgh

separate and hence lead to complex patterns of particles or of an advected tracer. Many aspects of chaotic advection have been explored in so-called kinematic models in which the velocity field is imposed as a given function of space and time and the resulting transport and mixing properties of the flow are calculated (e.g., by following fluid particles). The flows considered are often taken to be time periodic, in which case the advection problem reduces to the repeated application of a map. An

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Kevin R. Knupp

15 MARCH 1987 KEVIN R. KNUPP 987Downdrafts within High Plains Cumulonimbi. Part I: General Kinematic StructureKEVIN R. KNUPP*Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523(Manuscript received 30 September 1985, in final form 9 October 1986) This' paper presents results from a comprehensive investigation in which observations from several

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John D. Marwitz

IZIg JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOLUME40The Kinematics of Orographic Airflow During Sierra Storms JOHN D. ~[ARWITZDepartment of .4tmospheric Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie 82701(Manuscript received 26 April 1982, in final form 15 December 1982) ABSTRACT Two ease studies of the kinematics of the airflow over the Sierra barrier are presented. The

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Lance F. Bosart

15 JUNE 1986 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 1297 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEKinematic Vertical Motion and Relative Vorticity Profiles in a Long-Lived Midlatitude Convective System LANCE F. BOSARTDepartment of Atmospheric Science, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY 12222 2 October 1985 and 21 January 1986 ABSTRACTAverage kinematic vertical motion and relative vorticity profiles are presented for a long-lived midlatitudeconvective

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Pi-Jaw Sheu and Ernest M. Agee

M~rt977 PI-JAW SHEU AND ERNEST M. AGEE 793Kinematic Analysis and Air-Sea Heat Flux Associated with Mesoscale Cellular Convection during AMTEX 75 ioI-JAW $1tEU AND ERNEST M. AGEEDepartment of Geosciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind. 47907(Manuscript received 28 June 1976, in revised form 30 November 1976) ABSTRACT Several excellent

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James P. Kossin and Matthew D. Eastin

motivation for the present study is threefold. 1) By employing flight-level data, we can observe changes in the radial structure of the thermodynamic fields across the hurricane eye and eyewall. 2) The availability of flight-level wind data allows observation of changes in the radial profiles of kinematic and dynamic variables. 3) We present evidence that horizontal mixing between the eye and eyewall may explain the observed evolution of the thermodynamic and kinematic fields. In section 2a , we

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