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Shijie Zhong and Michael Gurnis

1. Introduction Plate tectonics is the surface manifestation of mantle convection. Previous numerical studies have shown that plate kinematics have a fundamental influence on mantle flow and thermal structure (e.g., Hager and O'Connell, 1981 ; Davies, 1988 ; Gable et al., 1991 ; Zhong and Gurnis, 1994a ; King and Ito, 1995 ; Bunge and Richards, 1996 ). While these studies clearly demonstrate the influence of plates on mantle convection by imposing plate motion and/or plate geometry in the

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Mark R. Jury

distinguishing factor; the SW trough has cool-north positive shear ( Kahana et al. 2002 ), while the AEW has warm-north negative shear. Naturally, intertropical convergence between the Hadley cells reaches a northern limit during summer [July–September (JAS)], so moisture can be fed into AEW despite their limited equatorward extent. The SW trough relies on upper kinematic forcing by the subtropical westerly jet stream ( Saaroni et al. 1998 ; Kahana et al. 2004 ; Ziv et al. 2005 ; Tsvieli and Zangvil 2005

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Mark R. Jury

are the main controls on TCI climate? What is the relationship between rainfall and thermodynamic/kinematic variables? What is the climatic influence of Hispaniola? How could the ocean climate affect early colonization? What are the environmental influences on marine resources? 2. Results 2.1. Atmospheric climate and annual cycle The spatial map of mean surface winds from NARR ( Figure 1a ) exhibits a distinct area of strong easterly flow (>7 m s −1 ) located at 21.5°N, 71°W. This wind maximum is

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M. P. Maneta and N. L. Silverman

aquifer depth to simulate subsurface runoff. In this paper, we present an ecohydrologic model designed to be run using outputs from a regional climate model. It is unique in that it maintains a balance between a comprehensive description of fluxes with a strong physics base and a parsimonious implementation that results in an agile model that is fast and easy to run. It implements a simplified forest growth module, a first-order local-closure scheme for the turbulent energy exchanges, and a kinematic

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Martin-Pierre Lavigne, Alain N. Rousseau, Richard Turcotte, Anne-Marie Laroche, Jean-Pierre Fortin, and Jean-Pierre Villeneuve

database. Surface runoff is estimated for each time step using a geomorphologic unit hydrograph after calculating the vertical water balance. The shape of this unit hydrograph is determined by routing a reference depth of water over all DEM cells of an RHHU according to a kinematic wave model. This method takes into account the flow structure within an RHHU and pathway roughness to the river segment. Two algorithms allow for simulation of streamflow: kinematic wave and diffusing wave. These consider

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Mark R. Jury

atmospheric data assimilation and forecasts, ocean reanalysis fields, and coupled climate model projections. The analysis covers thermodynamic and kinematic advection patterns contributed by the atmosphere and the background marine climate governed by the ocean. The intensity of convection in the eastern Antilles region is quantified in the period 24–25 December 2013 using 4-km Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) infrared cloud temperatures at 30-min interval, 25-km multisatellite

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Mark R. Jury and Sen Chiao

. Red lines are calm wakes, and gray shading denotes >14 kt. 4. Discussion and summary Our objective was to evaluate changes in surface fluxes, ABL height, and sea-breeze-modified trade winds as they contribute to diurnal convection in the central Antilles region. The WRF simulates a shallow homogeneous ABL of ~300 m during the night and a daytime increase of >1400 m over the islands. Kinematic wakes form behind Hispaniola’s 3000-m Cordillera Central and Jamaica’s Blue Mountains. Shear lines form

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Troy A. Blodgett and Bryan L. Isacks

. Spiegelman . 2002 . A critical evaluation of late Tertiary accelerated uplift rates for the Eastern Cordillera, central Andes of Bolivia. J. Geol. 110 : 89 – 100 . Baby , P. , B. Guillier , J. Oller , and G. Montemurro . 1993 . Modele cinematique de la zone subandine du coude de Santa Cruz (entre 16 degrees S et 19 degrees S. Bolivie) deduit de la construction de cartes equilibrees. [Kinematic model of the subandean zone of the Santa Cruz Bend (between 16 degrees S and 19 degrees S

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In-Young Yeo, Steven I. Gordon, and Jean-Michel Guldmann

: physically based and empirically based. A physically based model is developed from the mathematical equations describing the runoff phenomena. These equations, the Saint Venant equations, have been found to be too complex and difficult to implement. They have been simplified to become the kinematic wave model, the diffusion wave model, and the dynamic wave model for practical computer modeling ( Chow et al., 1989 ; Singh, 1995 ). However, these simplified versions of physical models are still too

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Y. Govender, E. Cuevas, L. D. S. Sternberg, and M. R. Jury

vegetation replicate the annual cycle, while kinematic variables like wind speed or V wind contribute the intermonth fluctuations. 4. Summary Puerto Rico’s subtropical location ensures that the island receives marine air masses from the North Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. The Guánica Dry Forest study site is in the rain shadow on the southwestern coast where evaporation induces a surface water deficit of about −20 mm month −1 . Rainfall above a threshold to affect d excess occurs only during the

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