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P. H. Haynes, D. A. Poet, and E. F. Shuckburgh

separate and hence lead to complex patterns of particles or of an advected tracer. Many aspects of chaotic advection have been explored in so-called kinematic models in which the velocity field is imposed as a given function of space and time and the resulting transport and mixing properties of the flow are calculated (e.g., by following fluid particles). The flows considered are often taken to be time periodic, in which case the advection problem reduces to the repeated application of a map. An

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Peter L. Read, Yasuhiro H. Yamazaki, Stephen R. Lewis, Paul D. Williams, Robin Wordsworth, Kuniko Miki-Yamazaki, Joël Sommeria, and Henri Didelle

function in Fourier (wavenumber) space from a sequence of direct numerical simulations of β -plane turbulence. Starting with the enstrophy evolution equation, where Ξ( k , t ) is the vorticity correlation function, ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, k is the horizontal wave vector, and k its magnitude. The spectral enstrophy transfer, T Ξ ( k , t ), is then given by where ζ ( k , t ) is the relative vorticity as a function of wavenumber k at time t , p and q are wave

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D. G. Dritschel and M. E. McIntyre

-induced mean zonal forces. J. Atmos. Sci. , 48 , 651 – 678 . Haynes , P. H. , D. A. Poet , and E. F. Shuckburgh , 2007 : Transport and mixing in kinematic and dynamically consistent flows. J. Atmos. Sci. , 64 , 3640 – 3651 . Held , I. , 1975 : Momentum transport by quasi-geostrophic eddies. J. Atmos. Sci. , 32 , 1494 – 1497 . Hide , R. , 1958 : An experimental study of thermal convection in a rotating liquid. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London , A250 , 441 – 478 . Hoskins , B

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