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Frederick T. Mayer and Oliver B. Fringer

beneath the sponge layer (the bottom 2 km of the domain), and stretches linearly within the sponge layer until Δ z = 300 m at the surface. This is identical to the vertical grid used in Nikurashin and Ferrari (2010) . The simulations begin at rest and are spun up with a forcing scheme that ensures a constant volume-averaged streamwise velocity U ( Nelson and Fringer 2017 ). As described in Mayer and Fringer (2019, manuscript submitted to Ocean Modell. ), the kinematic viscosity is a constant ν

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Hemantha W. Wijesekera, Joel C. Wesson, David W. Wang, William J. Teague, and Z. R. Hallock

10 km is similar to the width of Velasco Reef. The nature of a flow behind an obstacle can be characterized from the Reynolds number ( Batchelor 1967 ), (8a) Re = UL / ν , where ν is the molecular kinematic viscosity. Re is O (10 9 ) for ν = 1.2 × 10 −6 m 2 s −1 . By replacing ν from turbulent eddy viscosity K M , we can obtain a representative Reynolds number, Re T which is O (10 4 ) for K M = 10 −1 m 2 s −1 . For Re T > 10 3 , the flow separates behind an obstacle and becomes

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Kristin L. Zeiden, Jennifer A. MacKinnon, Matthew H. Alford, Daniel L. Rudnick, Gunnar Voet, and Hemantha Wijesekera

number, Re = UL / ν ( Roshko 1954 ). Here f e is the (nonangular) eddy shedding frequency, U is the unperturbed upstream velocity, L is the diameter of the cylinder and ν is the kinematic viscosity. The configuration of wake eddies satisfies a constant spacing ratio similar to a von Kármán vortex street (VKVS), ( von Karman 1912 ). These characteristics persist even for turbulent wakes with high Reynolds numbers ( Bearman 1969 ). Observational studies have routinely found eddies in the

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