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Xiaofang Feng, Qinghua Ding, Liguang Wu, Charles Jones, Ian Baxter, Robert Tardif, Samantha Stevenson, Julien Emile-Geay, Jonathan Mitchell, Leila M. V. Carvalho, Huijun Wang, and Eric J. Steig

. Linear trends of annual mean 200-hPa geopotential height (Z200; m decade −1 ) over the period from 1979 to 2017 in (a) ERA-Interim, (b) 40-member ensemble mean of CMIP5, and (c) the mean of five large ensemble (LE) historical simulations. (d)–(f),(g)–(i) As in (a)–(c), but for annual mean 500-hPa geopotential height (Z500; m decade −1 ) and surface temperatures (°C decade −1 ), respectively. In (g), different color scales are used for ERA-Interim surface temperature trends over the land in the globe

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Robert A. Tomas, Clara Deser, and Lantao Sun

); 2) a slab (mixed layer) ocean model; and 3) no interactive ocean—SSTs and sea ice are prescribed as a lower boundary condition for the atmosphere. All three use the same atmospheric model, the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4) with a finite volume dynamical core, at a horizontal resolution of 0.90° latitude and 1.25° longitude and 26 vertical levels coupled to the same land model, the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4), that shares the atmospheric model’s horizontal grid. POP2 has a

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Bradford S. Barrett, Gina R. Henderson, and Joshua S. Werling

-water equivalent compared reasonably well against both in situ observations and other widely used large-scale snow products such as that of the Canadian Meteorological Center ( Reichle et al. 2011 ). Although the MERRA-Land snow depth product ( Reichle et al. 2011 ) appeared to have greater skill in representing snow depth, recent studies have documented spurious trend issues with the MERRA-Land product, including possible biases in precipitation from before 1999 ( Trenberth et al. 2011 ). Daily change in snow

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Lee J. Welhouse, Matthew A. Lazzara, Linda M. Keller, Gregory J. Tripoli, and Matthew H. Hitchman

and subdecadal time scales. Its effects are found around the globe, rather than simply in the Pacific where it has its origin ( Diaz and Markgraf 1992 ; Trenberth 1975a , b , 1976 ; Mo and White 1985 ). ENSO has been described as a coupled system linking an oceanic segment and an atmospheric segment, El Niño and the Southern Oscillation, respectively ( Philander and Rasmusson 1985 ). The Southern Oscillation is measured using the surface pressure variations between the equatorial western and

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Kyle R. Clem, James A. Renwick, and James McGregor

using the first and second empirical orthogonal function (EOF; Wilks 2011 ) of seasonal-mean ERA-Interim 2-m temperature anomalies over the region 170°E–50°W, 60°–90°S, which includes the Ross Ice Shelf, Marie Byrd Land (central West Antarctica), the Antarctic Peninsula, and the adjacent Ross, Amundsen, and Bellingshausen Seas. A map of the study region, including the EOF region, is provided in Fig. 1 . The EOFs are calculated separately for each season using seasonal-mean temperature anomalies

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Bradley P. Goodwin, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Aaron B. Wilson, Stacy E. Porter, and M. Roxana Sierra-Hernandez

1. Introduction The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) is a climatologically complex region that includes ice-free ocean, sea ice, land ice, and significant topographic relief within a relatively small area ( Fig. 1 ). Air temperatures have increased, particularly along the west coast since the 1950s (e.g., ~2.5°C; King 1994 ), reflecting one of the strongest positive regional trends recorded globally ( Marshall et al. 2002 ; Turner et al. 2005 ). Rapid warming observed over the AP has been associated

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Michael Goss, Steven B. Feldstein, and Sukyoung Lee

, which alters the strength of the stratospheric polar vortex via changes in the amplitude of the vertical propagation of planetary waves into the stratosphere. With the above in mind, we will use observational data to study questions related to transient eddy interference with the wintertime Northern Hemispheric climatological stationary wave as it relates to the extratropical circulation, tropical convection, Arctic surface temperature, sea ice, and the stratospheric polar vortex. Specifically, we

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Xichen Li, David M. Holland, Edwin P. Gerber, and Changhyun Yoo

different ocean basins separately in order to single out their individual impact. 3. CAM4 simulation forced by tropical SST trend We investigate the robustness and the linearity of the tropical–Antarctic teleconnections using the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4; Gent et al. 2011 ). CAM4 is the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). The horizontal resolution of the model we used is ~2 degrees. CAM4 is coupled to an active community land model (CLM), a

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Ariaan Purich, Matthew H. England, Wenju Cai, Yoshimitsu Chikamoto, Axel Timmermann, John C. Fyfe, Leela Frankcombe, Gerald A. Meehl, and Julie M. Arblaster

uses the Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 (CAM4), and has atmosphere and land spectral T31 (~3.75°) horizontal resolution and ocean and sea ice of approximately 3.75° horizontal resolution. CMIP5 anthropogenic and natural forcings are used, based on the CMIP5 historical and RCP4.5 (after 2005) scenarios, including greenhouse gases, aerosols, stratospheric ozone, solar variations, and volcanic eruptions. The CESM1 pacemaker experiments assimilate observed three-dimensional temperature and

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Xiaojun Yuan, Michael R. Kaplan, and Mark A. Cane

surface climate, such as surface temperature. S. Lee et al. (2011) investigated the connection of Arctic temperature variability to MJO using ERA-40 reanalysis data. They used the coupled self-organizing map (SOM) between the NH 250-hPa streamfunction and tropical convective precipitation to detect dynamic links between the low and high latitudes. They found that the tropical convection associated with MJO causes extratropical circulation changes through atmospheric Rossby wave propagation, and the

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