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  • DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE/LASP: Processes, Dynamics, and Prediction of MJO Initiation x
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Elizabeth J. Thompson, Steven A. Rutledge, Brenda Dolan, Merhala Thurai, and V. Chandrasekar

et al. 2011 ). These cloud processes lead to characteristically different modes of DSD parameter variability in stratiform and convective rain ( Tokay and Short 1996 ; Houze 1997 ; Cifelli et al. 2000 ; Bringi et al. 2003 , 2009 ; Thurai et al. 2010 ; Schumacher et al. 2015 ; Thompson et al. 2015 , hereinafter T15 ), as well as differences between convective rain DSDs in tropical, subtropical, or midlatitude air masses over the ocean, coasts, or land ( Zipser 2003 ; Bringi et al. 2003

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H. Bellenger, R. Wilson, J. L. Davison, J. P. Duvel, W. Xu, F. Lott, and M. Katsumata

/V Mirai , some of which have been noted by Kerns and Chen (2014) (between 30 November–1 December for Gan and 21–24 November for Diego Garcia and R/V Mirai ). To characterize turbulence over open ocean (i.e., with minimal land influence), we concentrate on observations obtained from ships and from very small and flat atoll islands. We also limit the ship dataset to stationary periods for simplicity (this impacts only marginally the number of soundings that are used). Table 1 summarizes observation

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Kacie E. Hoover, John R. Mecikalski, Timothy J. Lang, Xuanli Li, Tyler J. Castillo, and Themis Chronis

operations. The CYGNSS scatterometers are unique in that they collect data in the L band to retrieve wind speed information using reflected signals from the U.S. global positioning system (GPS) across the tropics (between ~35°N and ~35°S). CYGNSS operates differently from other scatterometers [e.g., QuikSCAT, Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), and OceanSat-2 Scatterometer (OSCAT)] in that clear-sky to light-precipitation conditions are not required in order to obtain accurate high

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Shuguang Wang, Adam H. Sobel, Fuqing Zhang, Y. Qiang Sun, Ying Yue, and Lei Zhou

merged with the tendencies generated by the model. At the oceanic portion of the lower boundary, SST is updated every 6 h using the ERA-Interim SST. Additional sensitivity experiments are also conducted in which time-averaged SST is used ( section 3d ). Surface temperature over land is allowed to vary using the unified Noah land surface physics scheme ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ). The surface skin temperature as a separate variable is diagnosed using the surface skin temperature scheme ( Zeng and

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Elizabeth J. Thompson, Steven A. Rutledge, Brenda Dolan, and Merhala Thurai

China Sea, as well as a mean of many west Pacific warm pool events. A separation line between convective and stratiform rain was determined by BR09 using the Darwin, Australia, datasets. DSDs were considered convective (stratiform) if N w was greater (less) than a naturally emerging separator line: log 10 = −1.6 D 0 + 6.3. This partitioning method was found to be consistent with data from selected rain events in BR03 and with more data from Darwin by TH10 and Penide et al. (2013) . TH10

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, James H. Ruppert Jr., and Masaki Katsumata

.g., Ooyama 1990 ). However, owing to the lack of direct measurements of microphysical processes and precipitation rates over the sounding arrays, we use the formulation of Yanai et al. (1973) . 2 In addition to the cirrus cloud issue, it has been pointed out to the authors by Adam Sobel that the lower boundary for the surface longwave flux in CombRet was taken to be land, which is unrepresentative of the surrounding ocean and differs from the corresponding CERES value by several tens of watts per

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Nick Guy and David P. Jorgensen

–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE; Webster and Lukas 1992 ) was conducted in the western Pacific and observed three MJO passages. Details regarding the MJO (e.g., Lin and Johnson 1996 ) and mesoscale (e.g., Rickenbach and Rutledge 1998 ) structure were reported, resulting in a better understanding of the MJO in this region. However, using satellite and sounding data, Kiladis et al. (2005) suggested that MJO structure varied with longitude. Despite this, the Indian Ocean Basin has remained largely

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Richard H. Johnson and Paul E. Ciesielski

. In an investigation for a limited period of DYNAMO, Chen et al. (2016) found using aircraft dropsonde data that the height of the atmospheric boundary layer was ~100 m greater during the suppressed phase of the November DYNAMO MJO than during the convectively active phase. This observation is consistent with the findings of Johnson et al. (2001) , who used sounding data from the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) to investigate the

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric Maloney, and Susan C. van den Heever

with the microphysics and surface schemes. The Land Ecosystem–Atmosphere Feedback model, version 3 (LEAF-3), submodel within RAMS is used to represent surface–atmosphere heat and moisture exchange ( Walko et al. 2000 ). The RAMS simulations were approximately centered over the DYNAMO northern sounding array (NSA; Fig. 1 ). Simulations were run at two resolutions. A 1.5-km horizontal simulation was conducted with interactive LHFLXs to evaluate the convective-scale relationship of MJO precipitation

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Naoko Sakaeda, Scott W. Powell, Juliana Dias, and George N. Kiladis

). However, many details of the relationship between the diurnal cycle of rainfall and the MJO remain to be answered. The physical processes underlying the relationship between the MJO and the diurnal evolution of cloud and rain types were unclear in Sakaeda et al. (2017) because the analysis was limited to satellite estimates of cloud types and rain rates. Here we extend the results of Sakaeda et al. (2017) by using observations collected during the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO; Yoneyama et al. 2013

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