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Tosiyuki Nakaegawa

use of land cover monitoring in land surface sciences. As a result, several 1-km global land cover datasets have been produced by multiple research institutions, generally with moderate-resolution optical sensor data. These global land cover datasets have been used for both global and regional studies because they cover all continents and islands with sufficient spatial resolution (1 km). However, comparative analysis of different land cover datasets showed per-pixel agreement of only about 0.6 (e

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

this problem has been to use numerical models of the land surface, driven by global gridded meteorological analyses, to provide complete estimates in space and time. Independent observational datasets like those mentioned above are then used to validate the model estimates. This has been the paradigm of GSWP. This paper provides a historical review of GSWP, an overview of the scientific accomplishments of the project, and a sampling of other science and applications the project has enabled. Section

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Yadu Pokhrel, Naota Hanasaki, Sujan Koirala, Jaeil Cho, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Hyungjun Kim, Shinjiro Kanae, and Taikan Oki

hydrological models (GHMs) (see a comprehensive overview by Haddeland et al. 2011 ), land surface hydrologic processes are often treated in a rather conceptual way and surface energy balance critical to the evaporation process is not considered. In contrast, the land surface models (LSMs) used for climate modeling studies solve both water and energy balances. Since land surface hydrological processes exert profound influence on the overlying atmosphere ( Shukla and Mintz 1982 ; Koster et al. 2004 ), LSMs

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Qing Liu, Rolf H. Reichle, Rajat Bindlish, Michael H. Cosh, Wade T. Crow, Richard de Jeu, Gabrielle J. M. De Lannoy, George J. Huffman, and Thomas J. Jackson

et al. 2001 ; Bindlish et al. 2003 ; Gao et al. 2006 ). Among the surface meteorological forcing inputs to the land model, precipitation has the most direct and important influence on the estimation of soil moisture. Improving precipitation forcing data, in particular through the use of satellite- and gauge-based measurements, can therefore substantially improve the soil moisture estimates from the land surface model ( Guo et al. 2006 ). Model soil moisture estimates can also be improved

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Minseok Kang, Hyojung Kwon, Jung Hwa Cheon, and Joon Kim

the failure of energy balance closure (e.g., Wilson et al. 2002 ) hinder the use of the residual method from the assessment of annual E WC . Alternatively, physically based E WC models have been used and validated with the observed interception rainfall in various climate and vegetation types ( Rutter et al. 1975 ; Gash 1979 ; Link et al. 2004 ). The Rutter-type models, in particular, have been widely adopted for E WC algorithms in many hydrological models and land surface models (LSMs) (e

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Akihiko Ito and Motoko Inatomi

conditions ( Jarvis and McNaughton 1986 ; Schulze et al. 1987 ). WUE is also related to plant resource use and survival strategies along a gradient of water availability from desert to rain forest, as well as plant responses to changing environments. For agriculture, WUE represents an expected crop yield at the expense of a certain amount of water supply and is important for agronomic crop breeding in dry-land farming and for management of irrigation water. In the face of global environmental issues

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Dai Matsushima, Reiji Kimura, and Masato Shinoda

. , 123 , 221 – 236 . Verstraeten, W. W. , Veroustraete F. , van der Sande C. J. , Grootaers I. , and Feyen J. , 2006 : Soil moisture retrieval using thermal inertia, determined with visible and thermal spaceborne data, validated for European forests . Remote Sens. Environ. , 101 , 299 – 314 . Wang, K. C. , Li Z. Q. , and Cribb M. , 2006 : Estimation of evaporative fraction from a combination of day and night land surface temperatures and NDVI: A new method to determine the

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Pablo Imbach, Luis Molina, Bruno Locatelli, Olivier Roupsard, Gil Mahé, Ronald Neilson, Lenin Corrales, Marko Scholze, and Philippe Ciais

a multi-factor world . New Phytol. , 162 , 281 – 293 . Piao, S. , Friedlingstein P. , Ciais P. , de Noblet-Ducoudré N. , Labat D. , and Zaehle S. , 2007 : Changes in climate and land use have a larger direct impact than rising CO 2 on global river runoff trends . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA , 104 , 15 242 – 15 247 . Qian, H. , 2010 : Environment–richness relationships for mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians at global and regional scales . Ecol. Res. , 25 , 629 – 637

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Sante Laviola, Agata Moscatello, Mario Marcello Miglietta, Elsa Cattani, and Vincenzo Levizzani

, evolution, and amount of rain over land. Surface rainfall measurements and satellite image interpretation further support the analysis. The first result of the analysis consists in demonstrating the capabilities of the satellite sensing and the model in localizing the precipitating areas and possibly describe the precipitating system evolution. The analysis is also supported by the multifrequency MSG RGB investigations used to characterize the cloud types and discriminate the precipitating sectors. The

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