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Zhining Tao, Scott A. Braun, Jainn J. Shi, Mian Chin, Dongchul Kim, Toshihisa Matsui, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard

temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction ( Wick 2015 ; Braun et al. 2016 ) from just below flight level (~18 km) to the surface. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) data measured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board Terra and Aqua satellites are used for event description and model comparisons. MODIS provides global coverage of AOD at midvisible wavelength over land and ocean (e.g., Remer et al. 2005 ; Levy et al. 2013 ). Figure 1 shows daytime

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Hui Christophersen, Altug Aksoy, Jason Dunion, and Kathryn Sellwood

is equipped with a suite of instruments capable of collecting both TC inner-core ( R ≤ ~150 km, where R denotes distance from storm center; Rogers et al. 2012 ) and environmental measurements ( R ~ 150–500 km). For the NOAA SHOUT program, the GH payload is configured to include GPS dropwindsondes ( Hock and Franklin 1999 ), also used in HS3, the NASA High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Radar (HIWRAP; Heymsfield et al. 2013 ) conically scanning Doppler radar, and the High

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E. P. Nowottnick, P. R. Colarco, S. A. Braun, D. O. Barahona, A. da Silva, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, and J. R. Spackman

. (2006 , 2008 ) and Lau and Kim (2007) found that Saharan dust outbreaks and tropical cyclogenesis were anticorrelated and both Evan et al. (2008) and Lau and Kim (2007) suggested that solar absorption by dust reduces sea surface temperatures (SSTs), serving as a mechanism for inhibiting tropical cyclogenesis. In contrast, Bretl et al. (2015) found that permitting dust aerosol–radiation interaction had no influence on the number of developing versus nondeveloping tropical disturbances using

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Jonathan Zawislak, Haiyan Jiang, George R. Alvey III, Edward J. Zipser, Robert F. Rogers, Jun A. Zhang, and Stephanie N. Stevenson

descent upshear ( Jones 1995 ; DeMaria 1996 ). As such, precipitation is primarily initiated in the downshear-right (DSR) quadrant, advected cyclonically around the storm through the downshear-left (DSL) quadrant, and weakens and dissipates in the upshear-left (USL) and upshear-right (USR) quadrants. The convective available potential energy (CAPE), which is used as a proxy for convective instability, is largely consistent with the vertical motion and precipitation asymmetry; CAPE is found to

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Alan Brammer, Chris D. Thorncroft, and Jason P. Dunion

used for the analysis of the evolution of the AEW trough and for verification against the model ensemble forecasts, with climatological values calculated with respect to the CFS Reanalysis (CFSR) for the period of 1979–2010 ( Saha et al. 2010 , 2014 ). MERRA2 is also utilized to represent dust around the AEW trough. Observations from the HS3 Global Hawk platform include GPS dropwindsondes (dropsondes) that provide vertical profiles of temperature, relative humidity, and winds ( Hock and Franklin

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