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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

from noon to late afternoon ( Wallace 1975 ; Carbone et al. 2002 ; Matsui et al. 2010 ; Kikuchi and Wang 2008 ) and has been traditionally used to explain why continental convection is more vigorous than maritime ( Williams and Stanfill 2002 , hereafter WS02 ). Lucas et al. (1994) investigated aircraft-measured vertical velocity within deep convection over ocean and land and found that the convective updraft cores of maritime systems are only one-third or one-half the size of those of

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Ali Behrangi, Bin Guan, Paul J. Neiman, Mathias Schreier, and Bjorn Lambrigtsen

( Ferraro et al. 2000 ; Weng et al. 2003 ; Vila et al. 2007 ) employs a technique ( Kongoli et al. 2003 ; H. Meng et al. 2012, meeting presentation) through which a combination of MW sounding channels is used to distinguish between the scattering features over land surfaces (especially snow cover) and that of the atmosphere (precipitation-sized ice particles). However, a long-standing difficulty remains in dry atmospheres (e.g., total water vapor column of less than 10–15 mm), where even the 183-GHz

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F. Joseph Turk, R. Sikhakolli, P. Kirstetter, and S. L. Durden

’Ecuyer and Stephens 2002 ). Slowly varying changes to the surface, such as seasonal variations in vegetation, can be captured by land surface classification techniques. A well-known example is the Tool to Estimate Land Surface Emissivities at Microwave Frequencies (TELSEM) passive microwave–based surface classification ( Prigent et al. 2006 ; Aires et al. 2011 ), which provides a lookup table method to interpolate the emissivity mean and variance at a specified incidence angle and frequency, using a

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Chris Kidd, Toshihisa Matsui, Jiundar Chern, Karen Mohr, Chris Kummerow, and Dave Randel

copies of explicit cloud-resolving model simulations replace ill-posed parameterization of subgrid convection and cloud processes in GEOS-4. This hybrid structure of the climate model enables a more realistic representation of convection without using ill-posed convective parameterization, improving many cloud-related features, such as the diurnal cycle of precipitation ( Tao et al. 2009 ), land–atmosphere interactions ( Mohr et al. 2013 ), and distributions of ice water content (Chern et al. 2015

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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

mechanism to explain this trend. Kulie and Bennartz (2009) also discussed a globally significant shallow snowfall mode when illustrating the sensitivity of a vertical continuity reflectivity threshold created to mitigate potential ground clutter contamination over land. The ad hoc vertical continuity criterion used in Kulie and Bennartz (2009) required the lowest five contiguous CPR observations to exceed a minimum reflectivity threshold in order to be classified as a likely surface snowfall event

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E. Cattani, A. Merino, and V. Levizzani

used. The SPEs are accumulated to obtain monthly total precipitation intensities projected on common grids at 0.25° or 0.5°, as specified later in each section. Only grid cells over land are retained. b. Methods The nonhierarchical k -means clustering method ( Hartigan and Wong 1979 ) was employed to identify areas (clusters) over EA characterized by similar rainfall annual cycles. The cluster analysis was applied to GPCC_Clim data at 0.25° spatial resolution, upon transforming the monthly

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Hamed Ashouri, Phu Nguyen, Andrea Thorstensen, Kuo-lin Hsu, Soroosh Sorooshian, and Dan Braithwaite

with desirable spatial and temporal coverages. Satellite products with their global coverage are very well suited for this purpose. With the advancement in remote sensing science and technology, high-resolution data and information about the earth’s surface characteristics (e.g., topography, soil types, and land use) and hydrometeorological forcings (e.g., precipitation, temperature, and evapotranspiration) have been made available globally. Particularly, remote sensing of precipitation—one of the

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Abebe Sine Gebregiorgis, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Yang E. Hong, Nicholas J. Carr, Jonathan J. Gourley, Walt Petersen, and Yaoyao Zheng

over the contiguous United States (CONUS). The CONUS comprises diverse topography that ranges from 0 (South and East Coast regions) to 4500 m (Intermountain West) above mean sea level. Moreover, the region’s diverse topographic nature (ranging from lowland and flat flood plains to high mountains), diverse climatic zones, diverse land use and land cover, and a wide array of precipitation systems (tropical and midlatitude cyclones, airmass thunderstorms, orographic precipitation, supercells, etc

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