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  • 16th International Symposium for the Advancement of Boundary-Layer Remote Sensing (ISARS 2012) x
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Rostislav Kouznetsov, Priit Tisler, Timo Palo, and Timo Vihma

to the 2012 International Symposium for the Advancement of Boundary Layer Remote Sensing (ISARS-2012; Kouznetsov et al. 2012 ). 2. Measuring site and equipment The Aboa station is located at Basen nunatak in west Dronning Maud Land ( Fig. 1 ). The measurements were carried out at a practically flat snow surface about 10 km southeast of the station (73.11°S, 13.17°W). The inclination of the surface around the measuring site is about 10 m km −1 . The surface is practically homogeneous for more

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C. R. Wood, R. D. Kouznetsov, R. Gierens, A. Nordbo, L. Järvi, M. A. Kallistratova, and J. Kukkonen

( HSY 2008 ). The city-scale scintillometer is at a bearing of 16° from north; the downtown scintillometer is 271°. FMI is at Kumpula. (b) A bird's-eye transect along the city-scale scintillometer beam. Height is MSL using airborne laser database of 1-m horizontal resolution (National Land Survey of Finland 2010 ). (c) A cross section along the city-scale scintillometer beam. (d) As in (b), but for downtown scintillometer beam. (e) As in (c), but for the downtown scintillometer beam. Table 1

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Qing Yang, Larry K. Berg, Mikhail Pekour, Jerome D. Fast, Rob K. Newsom, Mark Stoelinga, and Catherine Finley

.3.1 include 1) an increase in Prandtl number for unstable conditions, which will result in weaker mixing during daytime, and 2) weakened mixing in stable conditions during nighttime by reducing mixing length scale ω s and allowing it to decrease with height ( Jiménez et al. 2012 ). Land surface models (LSMs) are used in WRF to compute heat and moisture fluxes over the land surface. As such, they also influence the low-level wind prediction in the model. The four-layer “Noah” LSM ( Chen and Dudhia 2001

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S.-E. Gryning, E. Batchvarova, and R. Floors

Bhattacharya , P. , and R. Bhattacharjee , 2010 : A study on Weibull distribution for estimating the parameters . J. Appl. Quant. Methods , 4 , 234 – 241 . Boilley , A. , and J.-F. Mahfouf , 2012 : Assimilation of low-level wind in a high-resolution mesoscale model using the back and forth nudging algorithm . Tellus , 64A , 18697 , doi:10.3402/tellusa.v64i0.18697 . Chen , F. , and J. Dudhia , 2001 : Coupling an advanced land surface–hydrology model with the Penn State–NCAR MM5

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A. B. White, M. L. Anderson, M. D. Dettinger, F. M. Ralph, A. Hinojosa, D. R. Cayan, R. K. Hartman, D. W. Reynolds, L. E. Johnson, T. L. Schneider, R. Cifelli, Z. Toth, S. I. Gutman, C. W. King, F. Gehrke, P. E. Johnston, C. Walls, D. Mann, D. J. Gottas, and T. Coleman

resolution under all weather conditions ( Gutman et al. 2004 ). Also, unlike microwave satellite retrievals, GPS can provide accurate water vapor estimates over land. Peixoto and Oort (1992) showed that approximately 80% of the water vapor in the Northern Hemisphere atmosphere at midlatitudes exists in the lowest 700 mb, so IWV serves as a good proxy for the low-level moisture that fuels precipitation. For example, using four winters of IWV measurements collected on the northern coast of California

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Jacob Berg, Jakob Mann, and Edward G. Patton

by Sathe et al. (2011) , who modeled the biases in the second-order statistics because of the averaging volume and the combination of line-of-sight velocities at different positions. The biases on the variances of the three velocity components were shown to vary significantly with stability, reflecting varying turbulence length scales. Mann et al. (2010) showed that by using the two-beam method proposed by Eberhard et al. (1989) , the WindCube pulsed lidar can measure turbulent stress in the

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Leslie M. Hartten and Paul E. Johnston

ocean and the atmosphere as well as radiative processes within the atmosphere. These attributes are poorly measured by satellites. It is possible that cloud depths could be calculated by using wind-profiler reflectivities to determine z i and ceilometers to measure cloud-base heights. Initial research along those lines ( Piña 2010 ; Lujan 2011 ) has incidentally revealed deep, long-lasting voids in profiler observations of the Sc-topped MBL, which we explore here. 2. Basic profiler observations

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