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Ellen Jasinski, Douglas Morton, Ruth DeFries, Yosio Shimabukuro, Liana Anderson, and Matthew Hansen

the spatial distribution of cultivated land. Previous studies have demonstrated the impact of road access on land-use change ( Stone et al. 1991 ; Wilkie et al. 2000 ; Laurance et al. 2002 ; Alves 2002 ). How much land in Mato Grosso will ultimately be converted to mechanized agriculture depends on future economic, political, biophysical, and climatic conditions. However, current assessment of the likelihood of conversion to mechanized agriculture for different landscapes in Mato Grosso can

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Gregory P. Asner, David E. Knapp, Amanda N. Cooper, Mercedes M. C. Bustamante, and Lydia P. Olander

on a large area of the Brazilian Amazon and bordering cerrado; and (iii) develop a pre-land-use typology of the many ecosystem types found throughout the Amazon. The last goal is largely driven by the need to define the structural attributes of these systems without the major forms of land use (e.g., cattle ranching, agriculture, logging, etc.) so that subsequent studies of forest and savanna disturbance can be compared to a uniform baseline. This paper provides that baseline in the context of

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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

precipitation during the night ( Nogués-Paegle and Berbery 2000 ). This lack of improvement was especially discouraging since regional models provide a means to investigate the influence of regional features on the atmospheric circulation by means of a better characterization of topography, coastal shape, land–sea ice distribution, contrasts in soil use, etc. While there are a number of research avenues that need to be explored to determine why current regional simulations are not able to substantially

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Eraldo A. T. Matricardi, David L. Skole, Mark A. Cochrane, Jiaguo Qi, and Walter Chomentowski

. 1992 ), increased risk of local species extirpation ( Martini et al. 1994 ), and emissions of carbon ( Houghton 1996 ). Logged forests are increasingly being revisited multiple times to harvest additional tree species ( Uhl et al. 1997 ; Veríssimo et al. 1995 ), exacerbating such problems. Timber extraction is a major land-use activity in the Brazilian Amazon, representing 90% of Brazil’s native wood production (Veríssimo and Smeraldi 1999). Frontier logging operations catalyze deforestation by

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Andrew J. Elmore, Gregory P. Asner, and R. Flint Hughes

component that is required for fire. Furthermore, fuel quantity is the only fire component that can be modified by human land use, making it a key parameter for measurement in managed grasslands worldwide. Grass-fueled fires are a particular problem in systems where grasses have invaded woodlands, such as in the Hawaiian Archipelago ( D’Antonio and Vitousek 1992 ). Hawaii contains unique woodland ecosystems with a well-documented proliferation of exotic African grasses across its drier landscapes found

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Wilfrid Schroeder, Jeffrey T. Morisette, Ivan Csiszar, Louis Giglio, Douglas Morton, and Christopher O. Justice

widespread use of fire for land management, together with the extensive areas of fire-prone native vegetation. Among these areas, the southern and eastern edges of the Brazilian Amazon, known as the arc of deforestation, together with adjacent cerrado (savanna) areas, have the highest consistent fire counts from satellite data of any region in Brazil every year from June to October ( Prins et al. 1998 ; additional information available online at http://www.cptec.inpe.br/queimadas , or http

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Jeffrey T. Morisette, Louis Giglio, Ivan Csiszar, Alberto Setzer, Wilfrid Schroeder, Douglas Morton, and Christopher O. Justice

Pereira 1991a ; Franca and Setzer 2001 ), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) ( Setzer et al. 1994 ; Prins et al. 1998 ). This work is part of LBA that is carried out specifically under Land Cover and Land Use Change Investigation 23 (LC-23): quantifying the accuracy of MODIS fire products and establishing their relationship with land-cover dynamics. The LC-23 project is working to provide accuracy information on

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Michael Keller, Ruth Varner, Jadson D. Dias, Hudson Silva, Patrick Crill, Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira Jr., and Gregory P. Asner

1. Introduction Selective logging is an extensive land use in the Amazon region of Brazil and in other tropical forest areas. According the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), the volume of round-wood production in the Brazilian Amazon between 1991 and 2000 was 3.5 × 10 7 m 3 yr −1 ( http://www.igbe.br/ ). Assuming a nominal harvest volume between 20 and 30 m 3 ha −1 this implies that in an average year approximately 1.8 × 10 6 to 1.2 × 10 6 ha were affected by

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Cuizhen Wang, Jiaguo Qi, and Mark Cochrane

1. Introduction The Brazilian Amazon rain forest has been subjected to various direct and indirect human impacts in the past decades. It has been deforested rapidly to establish agriculture and pasture activities ( Skole et al. 1997 ). The clear-cut fragmented the remaining forests and exposed vast quantities of the resulting forest edges to greater amounts of drought and wind ( Cochrane et al. 1999 ). In addition to deforestation, selective logging has become a dominant form of land use in the

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Edson E. Sano, Laerte G. Ferreira, and Alfredo R. Huete

soybean and corn). Nowadays, cerrado is the main agricultural province in Brazil and is the country’s most severely threatened biome, requiring a prompt, continuous, and precise mapping and monitoring. To date, the majority of the studies related to the cerrado’s seasonal and land-cover monitoring have been based on optical remote sensing technology. França and Setzer ( França and Setzer 1998 ) as well as Mantovani and Pereira ( Mantovani and Pereira 1998 ) focused on the use of Advanced Very High

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