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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Sebastian W. Hoch, and Derek D. Jensen

surface and its SEB and discovered distinctive characteristics in comparison with nonplaya land surfaces, such as an early-morning maximum in LE, rehydration of the topsoil at night, a shallow water table 0–60 cm below the surface, and a nearly order-of-magnitude difference between the potential and actual mean daily evaporation. Fig . 1. Google Earth image of the 3.3-km domain (© 2015 Google; imagery © 2015 TerraMetrics) and inset of WRF land use (color filled) and terrain (contoured every 150 m) for

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Jason C. Knievel, and William Y. Y. Cheng

Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS) or the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecast System (IFS). The land surface models (LSMs) that predict the land surface state in these operational modeling systems do not currently utilize in situ soil moisture observations ( Dirmeyer et al. 2002 ; Dee et al. 2014 ). Instead, the soil moisture in the GFS LSM is nudged toward a soil moisture climatology ( Dee et al. 2014 ), whereas the IFS uses an extended

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Robert S. Arthur, Katherine A. Lundquist, Jeffrey D. Mirocha, and Fotini K. Chow

effort is the use of IBM to overcome the slope limitations associated with WRF’s native terrain-following coordinate. Lundquist et al. (2010) first implemented a two-dimensional IBM in WRF with a no-slip boundary condition and coupling to the MM5 (Dudhia) shortwave radiation scheme, the RRTM longwave radiation scheme, the MM5 surface layer module, and the Noah land surface module [for documentation of these schemes, see Skamarock et al. (2008) , and references therein]. Additional WRF

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Sebastian W. Hoch, and Jason C. Knievel

, and soil porosity) are specified using land-use and soil-type databases, whereas soil moisture and temperature are derived from observational data and/or land surface modeling. In either case, the incorrect specification of these land surface characteristics is at least partly responsible for NST forecast errors (e.g., Huang et al. 1996 ; Dirmeyer et al. 2000 ; Rife et al. 2004 ; Wen et al. 2012 ). Soil moisture is an important initialized variable because it strongly influences NSTs, surface

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Feimin Zhang and Zhaoxia Pu

Dudhia scheme ( Dudhia 1989 ) for shortwave radiation; and the Noah land surface model ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ). The planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization used in this study is MYNN 2.5 ( Nakanishi 2001 ), which originated from the well-known MYJ scheme ( Mellor and Yamada 1982 ) with additional consideration of buoyancy effects on the pressure covariances and newly proposed parameterizations for the master length scale. In addition, Nakanishi and Niino (2006) stated that the MYNN scheme

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Hailing Zhang, Zhaoxia Pu, and Xuebo Zhang

studied ( Hanna and Yang 2001 ; Zhang and Zheng 2004 ). To accurately simulate near-surface atmospheric conditions, several factors must be represented properly in numerical models. These include land use, topography, surface heat flux transport, and various characteristics of the lower atmosphere ( Lee et al. 1989 ; Wolyn and McKee 1989 ; Shafran et al. 2000 ; Cheng and Steenburgh 2005 ). Thus, the accurate simulation of near-surface atmospheric diurnal variation is one of the most important and

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H. J. S. Fernando, E. R. Pardyjak, S. Di Sabatino, F. K. Chow, S. F. J. De Wekker, S. W. Hoch, J. Hacker, J. C. Pace, T. Pratt, Z. Pu, W. J. Steenburgh, C. D. Whiteman, Y. Wang, D. Zajic, B. Balsley, R. Dimitrova, G. D. Emmitt, C. W. Higgins, J. C. R. Hunt, J. C. Knievel, D. Lawrence, Y. Liu, D. F. Nadeau, E. Kit, B. W. Blomquist, P. Conry, R. S. Coppersmith, E. Creegan, M. Felton, A. Grachev, N. Gunawardena, C. Hang, C. M. Hocut, G. Huynh, M. E. Jeglum, D. Jensen, V. Kulandaivelu, M. Lehner, L. S. Leo, D. Liberzon, J. D. Massey, K. McEnerney, S. Pal, T. Price, M. Sghiatti, Z. Silver, M. Thompson, H. Zhang, and T. Zsedrovits

U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) was selected as the field site. This site has the advantages of a large spatial extent, richness in mountain weather phenomena, interesting climatological regimes, distinct (but few) land-use types, an existing instrumentation network, and unique logistical support. A repertoire of measurement tools were used to observe processes over a wide range of space–time scales, which was augmented by model evaluations and improvements. This paper presents an overview

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Sean M. Wile, Joshua P. Hacker, and Kenneth H. Chilcoat

dense fog event. A 96-member ensemble was configured with a nested 36/12/4-km horizontal grid spacing configuration, centered over the Great Salt Lake ( Fig. 2 ). Each grid contained 60 vertical η levels and an upper boundary at 100 hPa. All WRF simulations used the same physics suite as follows: the Noah land surface model ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ); the basic similarity theory surface layer scheme with the Beljaars (1995) convective velocity and stability functions from Paulson (1970) , Dyer

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Matthew E. Jeglum, Sebastian W. Hoch, Derek D. Jensen, Reneta Dimitrova, and Zachariah Silver

cover and Noah land surface model as described in Massey et al. (2014) . The National Centers for Environmental Prediction Final Operational Model Global Tropospheric Analyses ( NCEP 2000 ) were used for initial and boundary conditions. This configuration, in particular the PBL scheme, was identified by Dimitrova et al. (2016) to offer the best representation of flows in the gap and near the east slope. While multiple PBL schemes were tested, only the results from the QNSE will be shown. A WRF

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