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Fang-Yi Cheng, Yu-Ching Hsu, Pay-Liam Lin, and Tang-Huang Lin

. Over the past few decades, land use (LU) and land cover (LC) characteristics in Taiwan have changed substantially. Major cities such as Taipei, Taichung, and Kaohsiung have evolved into megacities, accompanied by the removal of croplands and trees on the outskirts and further urbanization in different parts of the metropolitan area. Such changes have modified local weather conditions, including the land–sea-breeze (LSB) circulation pattern and urban heat island effects ( Tai et al. 2008 ). Taiwan

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Winston T. L. Chow and Bohumil M. Svoma

1. Introduction Urbanization alters surface land-use/land cover (LULC) characteristics that, in turn, affect several important factors controlling near-surface and surface climates. An extensively researched example of this is the urban heat island (UHI)—the phenomenon of warmer urban environments relative to their local surroundings ( Landsberg 1981 ). The UHI mainly arises from surface energy balance alterations due to LULC change ( Oke 1982 ), and its intensity is a function of several

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Susanne Grossman-Clarke, Joseph A. Zehnder, Thomas Loridan, and C. Sue B. Grimmond

1. Introduction Urbanization is one of the most powerful and visible anthropogenic forces on Earth. Today there are over 400 cities in the world with populations of over 1 million and, in the foreseeable future, virtually all population growth is projected to occur in urban areas ( United Nations 2007 ). Expansion of cities to accommodate increasing population has global, regional, and local effects on weather and climate because of land use–land cover (LULC) changes and accompanying effects on

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Jenny Lindén, Jan Esper, and Björn Holmer

1. Introduction It is well known that anthropogenic changes in land cover and land use (LCLU) can impact climate, with the most pronounced effects found in urban areas. A changed energy balance caused by many factors—increased thermal admittance of urban materials, limited radiative and advective cooling due to the urban geometry, lowered evapotranspiration cooling due to sealed surfaces and limited vegetation coverage, and anthropogenic heat release—tend to increase air temperatures in urban

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Yingbin He, Dongmei Liu, Yanmin Yao, Qing Huang, Jianping Li, Youqi Chen, Shuqin Shi, Li Wan, Shikai Yu, and Deying Wang

. 2008 ). Little attention, however, has been paid to this problem in the literature. Hence, there is an urgent need for the development of suitability mapping for spring soybean cultivation, including a comparative analysis of suitability mapping with actual planted areas. Assessment of land-use suitability is one of the most important branches in land science. The literature on land suitability analysis is extensive, and, in general, most of the studies focus on biophysical characteristics such as

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Kristina Trusilova, Barbara Früh, Susanne Brienen, Andreas Walter, Valéry Masson, Grégoire Pigeon, and Paul Becker

atmospheric models serve as an instrument for studying the climate on spatial scales below 50–80 km. Such models can resolve the atmospheric flow in detail to account for urban-specific processes. The increasing resolution of regional climate models in the last decade lead to the increase of their complexity. On the fine spatial scales of 1–10 km, the parameterization of different land uses requires more discretization between natural and human-made surfaces as they differ greatly in their thermal and

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Clint Aegerter, Jun Wang, Cui Ge, Suat Irmak, Robert Oglesby, Brian Wardlow, Haishun Yang, Jingshen You, and Martha Shulski

1. Introduction The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has identified the effect of land-use and land-cover change as one of the largest uncertainties in global climate models ( IPCC 2013 ). Numerous types of land-cover changes, such as those related to agriculture, deforestation, and urbanization, have been shown to have an impact on several atmospheric variables, including temperatures, humidity, and precipitation ( Mahmood et al. 2014 ; Pielke et al. 2007 ). The addition of

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Josh Durkee, Ahmed M. Degu, Faisal Hossain, Rezaul Mahmood, Jesse Winchester, and Themis Chronis

common thread of such anecdotes claims physical attenuation of an easterly moving convective storm near the LBL and reintensification after passing LBL downstream toward Hopkinsville, Kentucky. Fig . 1. Location of study area and LBL, Kentucky. Given the untested nature of the anecdotes, this study explored the role of the LBL and its surrounding land features on mesoscale storm systems. Land use and land cover (LULC) changes create heterogeneities in surface roughness, soil moisture, and vegetation

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S. R. Shaffer, W. T. L. Chow, M. Georgescu, P. Hyde, G. D. Jenerette, A. Mahalov, M. Moustaoui, and B. L. Ruddell

. Hence, there is a trade-off between explicitly resolving fine structure in the ASL, especially within the urban boundary layer, also in conjunction with flow dominated by complex terrain ( Fernando 2010 ). Furthermore, parameterizations of the ASL often employ the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory (MOST; Monin and Obukhov 1954 ), wherein horizontal homogeneity is assumed, meaning that individual buildings and land uses at subgrid scales are not explicitly resolved. This assumption can break down in

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K. Trusilova, M. Jung, and G. Churkina

model simulations showing that additional moisture from urban sources contributes to increased downwind precipitation. Because the aerosol–precipitation feedbacks are still poorly understood and, thus, rarely included in regional climate models, we focus only on the effects of land use change on climate. Thus, the results of this study should be interpreted with care, keeping in mind that aerosol effects on surface energy balance and precipitation formation are not included in the models used here

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