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Victor Zlotnicki, John Wahr, Ichiro Fukumori, and Yuhe T. Song

background models, and so on, but each center uses different software, and each experiments with editing and processing criteria, so the resulting models are somewhat different; this encourages progress by identifying strengths and weaknesses. During the nominal month for one gravity solution, oceanic, atmospheric, and land hydrologic basins vary significantly relative to the sensitivity of the measurement. It is thus necessary to remove some model of those masses at each time step in the orbit

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Manfred Wenzel and Jens Schröter

-guess model results ( Fig. 4 ), that is, using NCEP–NCAR reanalysis forcing fields. In this case the modeled total sea level trend (4.7 mm yr −1 ) splits into 1.7 mm yr −1 for the steric contribution and 3.0 mm yr −1 for the eustatic contribution. After the optimization, the eustatic trend (0.74 mm yr −1 ) corresponds well to the 0.87 mm yr −1 value that can be derived by adding together the estimates reported in Cazenave and Nerem (2004) : 0.25 mm yr −1 sea level rise from land water and snowmass, 0

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Serguei Sokolov and Stephen R. Rintoul

1. Introduction For geophysical flows of sufficient spatial scale, the meridional gradient of planetary vorticity (the β effect) provides a restoring force that helps to organize the flow into persistent, narrow zonal jets ( Rhines 1975 ). Well-known examples include the jets on Jupiter and the outer planets and the jet streams in the earth’s atmosphere. Oceanic flows also fall in a parameter range conducive to the formation of zonal jets, although the presence of land boundaries has been

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Rui M. Ponte and Sergey V. Vinogradov

relation with an implicit free surface at each time step. The basic configuration of our setup is similar to that used by the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) Consortium ( Köhl et al. 2003 ). The model grid has 1° horizontal spacing and spans the latitudinal range of ±80° (see Fig. 1 ); some of the poorly resolved ocean areas near the artificial wall at 80°N (e.g., north of the Bering Strait) are also set to land. There are 23 vertical levels with spacing varying from 10 m at

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Ichiro Fukumori, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Tong Lee

Majaess 1984 ). In fact, Le Traon and Gauzelin (1997) demonstrate a measurable improvement in explaining observed sea level fluctuations of the Mediterranean Sea using the simple model of Candela (1991) that describes deviations from an inverse barometer due to friction at the Straits of Gibraltar and Sicily. However, significant temporal sea level variations are often found even after accounting for fluctuating atmospheric pressure. These have been attributed to an inadequately modeled dynamic

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Felix W. Landerer, Johann H. Jungclaus, and Jochem Marotzke

depth layer for different ocean basins. These results then provide a reference estimate of regional thermosteric and halosteric sea level anomalies in connection to large-scale ocean circulation changes in a realistic climate change simulation. Decadal heat storage variability through volcanic aerosol forcing ( Church et al. 2005 ) and the contribution of eustatic sources (glacial melting and land storage) are not taken into account in our simulation. The simulations were performed using the fully

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Walter Munk and Bruce Bills

. Loder and Garrett (1978) related the nodal tide to an 18.6-yr variability of SST in coastal waters, using a simple diffusion equation for guidance. They chose a quadratic nonlinearity, κ ∼ 〈 u 2 〉, based on boundary layer turbulence in nonstratified fluids. These processes are not applicable to tidally produced turbulence in the pelagic oceans. (But we end up using the same κ ∼ 〈 u 2 〉 proxy: it is traditional and simple, and does not offend any presently known evidence.) We associate the

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