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E. Robertson

1. Introduction Land-use and land-cover changes (LULCC) affect surface albedo, roughness length, and transpiration, which in turn alter surface fluxes of energy, momentum, and moisture ( Bonan 2008 ). The surface flux response to LULCC can have large impacts on climate ( Bonan 1997 ; de Noblet-Ducoudré et al. 2012 ), although there is substantial model disagreement ( Lejeune et al. 2017 ) that is often difficult to constrain using observations ( Winckler et al. 2019 ). Recently, new

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Liang Chen and Paul A. Dirmeyer

1. Introduction During the period 1700–2000, between 42% and 68% of the global land surface was altered through human activities such as cropland and pasture expansion and wood harvest ( Hurtt et al. 2006 ). These land-use/land-cover changes can affect the energy and water exchange between the land surface and atmosphere, thereby impacting the climate at regional and global scales ( Feddema et al. 2005 ; Lawrence and Chase 2010 ). Previous studies have demonstrated the impacts of historical

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Huilin Huang, Yongkang Xue, Nagaraju Chilukoti, Ye Liu, Gang Chen, and Ismaila Diallo

1. Introduction Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) consists of a wide range of land surface conversions including the conversion from forests to crops and pasturelands, reforestation of formerly agricultural areas, afforestation, and all kinds of urbanization ( Mahmood et al. 2014 ). From the years 1700 to 2000, 42%–68% of the global land surface has been transformed from natural vegetation into agriculture, rangeland, and woodland ( Hurtt et al. 2006 ). By the end of the twentieth century

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Heiko Paeth, Kai Born, Robin Girmes, Ralf Podzun, and Daniela Jacob

in the low latitudes, may be the changing land cover in the form of land use changes owing to human activity like agriculture, shifting cultivation, pasture, urbanization, and transport infrastructure ( Feddema et al. 2005 ). On the other hand, land cover changes as a natural response to climate change, like, for example, albedo changes in high latitudes, may be crucial in the extratropical regions. Regional studies for the United States, China, and Europe have shown that urbanization, land use

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T. Davies-Barnard, P. J. Valdes, J. S. Singarayer, and C. D. Jones

1. Introduction Climatic analyses of land-use change have shown the importance of biogeochemical, biogeophysical, and combined land-use change (LUC) effects to world and regional temperature, water, and carbon cycles ( Bathiany et al. 2010 ; Betts et al. 2007 ; Claussen et al. 2001 ; Dirmeyer et al. 2010 ; Friedlingstein et al. 2006 ; Meiyappan and Jain 2012 ; Pongratz et al. 2010 ). Building on this knowledge, understanding of future LUC needs an integrated approach, considering the

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Sergey Malyshev, Elena Shevliakova, Ronald J. Stouffer, and Stephen W. Pacala

1. Introduction Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) has been long recognized as one of the factors affecting near-surface climate (e.g., Bonan 1997 ; Brovkin et al. 2004 ; Brovkin et al. 2006 ; Findell et al. 2007 ; Pongratz et al. 2010 ; de Noblet-Ducoudré et al. 2012 ; Brovkin et al. 2013 ; Kumar et al. 2013 ; Mahmood et al. 2013 ; Christidis et al. 2013 ). LULCC modifies surface properties, thus affecting all components of the energy and moisture budgets and contributing to the

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L. Huang, J. Zhai, C. Y. Sun, J. Y. Liu, J. Ning, and G.S. Zhao

1. Introduction As a primary anthropogenic activity, land-use changes (LUCs) influence regional and even global climates ( Pielke et al. 2002 ; Feddema et al. 2005 ; Diffenbaugh 2009 ; Fall et al. 2010 ; Mahmood et al. 2010 ) through both biogeochemical (carbon cycle and atmospheric CO 2 concentration) and biogeophysical (physical properties of the land surface, such as albedo, roughness, and evapotranspiration) processes ( Claussen et al. 2001 ; Pongratz et al. 2010 ; Jones et al. 2013a

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Renato Ramos da Silva, David Werth, and Roni Avissar

and 2050. They emphasize a pattern of deforestation that is quite different from the massive deforestation assumed in typical GCM simulations, and that can be resolved by regional climate models. The goal of the study summarized in this paper was to evaluate the impacts of these land-cover change scenarios on the wet-season climate of the Amazon basin. For this purpose, we used the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), a state-of-the-art regional climate model forced with actual

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Zhihong Jiang, Fei Huo, Hongyun Ma, Jie Song, and Aiguo Dai

in tropospheric heating and thus in atmospheric circulation patterns ( Pielke 2005 ). On the other hand, increased anthropogenic aerosols due to urbanization and industrialization can cool the surface by directly reflecting solar radiation and indirectly increasing the reflectivity of clouds ( Albrecht 1989 ). They can change precipitation even in regions far away from highly polluted areas ( Wang 2013 ). Therefore, urban land use and anthropogenic aerosols can have large impacts on regional

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Deming Zhao and Jian Wu

1. Introduction Land use and land cover (LULC) change can affect regional climate by altering energy and water exchange between the land and atmosphere ( Gibbard et al. 2005 ; Pielke et al. 1998 ; Weaver and Avissar 2001 ). Contributions from LULC changes, including urban heat islands, to the globally averaged land surface air temperature at 2 m (SAT) change are unlikely to exceed 10%; however, their impact at the regional or local scales in an area with rapid economic development and human

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