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Christopher Small

growth could have on the rest of the Earth system in the future. Human transformation of Earth's ecosystems is now recognized to be areally significant (e.g., Cincotta et al., 2000 ; Vitousek et al., 1997 ; Turner et al., 1990 ), but the majority of the human population inhabits a relatively small area. In 1990, over 50% of the human population occupied less than 3% of the ice-free land area ( Small and Cohen, 1999 ; Small and Cohen, 2004 ). The impact of high-density urban land use is different

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Lori T. Sentman, Elena Shevliakova, Ronald J. Stouffer, and Sergey Malyshev

1. Introduction The terrestrial biosphere is an important component of the global carbon cycle and actively exchanges carbon with the atmosphere on varying time scales. Conversion of natural lands for agriculture and wood harvesting has shaped the land surface for centuries. Hurtt et al. ( Hurtt et al. 2006 ) found that 42%–68% of the global land surface was altered by anthropogenic land-use activities between 1700 and 2000. Pongratz et al. ( Pongratz et al. 2009 ) showed that anthropogenic

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In-Young Yeo, Steven I. Gordon, and Jean-Michel Guldmann

to investigate the impacts of land uses/covers on watershed hydrology ( Jolánkai et al., 1999 ; Jordan et al., 1997 ; Bingner and Theurer, 2001 ; Moglen and Beighley, 2002 ; Novotny and Chesters, 1982 ; Singh, 1995 ). Using this knowledge, simulation and statistical models have been developed to 1) explain the land–water interaction, 2) quantify pollution loads, and 3) link pollutants to their sources. Quantitative modeling provides useful tools to analyze land–water interrelationships and

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Ademola K. Braimoh and Paul L. G. Vlek

1. Introduction Land use is determined by biophysical and social variables interacting in space and time ( Turner et al., 1995 ). Descriptive models of land-use and land-cover change (LUCC) are useful when trying to determine the relationship between LUCC and the driving forces. They also improve our understanding of the functioning of land-use systems for planning and policy formulation. To be of value in planning, models that quantify such relationships at different spatial scales are

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J. P. Kochendorfer and J. A. Hubbart

-gauging network of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Sites were selected on the basis of quality and length of the record, as well as the record being “relatively free of confounding anthropogenic influences” ( Slack et al. 1993 ). While the USGS appears to have excluded gauge sites with substantial upstream withdrawals, flow regulation, and urbanization, analysis conducted in this paper suggests that many of the streamflow records bear a clear signature of rural land-use change. We present evidence for such

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Ademola K. Braimoh and Paul L. G. Vlek

opportunity for international trade with neighboring Burkina Faso. It offers nonfarm employment for migrants from smaller localities. These same reasons have made Tamale and its environs a hotspot of land-cover change. Demand for housing is ever increasing, whereas food requirement for the increasing population has made urban and peri-urban agriculture increasingly important. In the face of competing demands for land resources, there is a need to understand the state and dynamics of land use/land cover in

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Alfred J. Kalyanapu, A. K. M. Azad Hossain, Jinwoo Kim, Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and C. K. Shum

et al. 2011 ; Hossain et al. 2012 ) points to the effects of large dams on changing the extreme precipitation patterns such as probable maximum precipitation (PMP). The probable maximum flood (PMF), which is an important factor for hydraulic design of dams, is dependent on PMP and the hydrology of the watershed. A key driver for modification of PMP and PMF during the postdam phase is the land-use/land-cover (LULC) change patterns that are both sensitive to mesoscale weather and surface

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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

minimum temperatures T min have warmed faster than daytime maximum values T max , thus decreasing the diurnal temperature range. The observed asymmetric warming at California coastal sites has been variously attributed to changes in cloud cover ( Nemani et al. 2001 ), sea surface temperatures (SSTs; Karl et al. 1993 ), upwelling ( Bakun 1990 ; Snyder et al. 2003 ; McGregor et al. 2007 ), changes in land cover/land use (LCLU; Mintz 1984 ; Zhang 1997 ; Chase et al. 2000 ; Pielke et al. 2002

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W. L. Ellenburg, R. T. McNider, J. F. Cruise, and John R. Christy

explained less than 38% of the annual and winter variance. Land-use/land-cover (LULC) change has been shown to alter cloudiness and potentially precipitation ( McNider et al. 1994 ; Wetzel and Chang 1987 ) so that some part of the soil moisture and cloudiness relationship found by Rogers (2013) may be an indirect effect of LULC change. Coincident with the past century’s warming hole, the southeastern United States experienced a major LULC change. While the region was a major agricultural producer at

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Christopher Potter, Pusheng Zhang, Steven Klooster, Vanessa Genovese, Shashi Shekhar, and Vipin Kumar

together with climate, land management, and basinscale geographic relationships is presented as a groundwork study to precede distributed simulation modeling of surface hydrologic flows in large river basins. Correlation analysis is used as a screening method to classify river basins into categories based on major controls on discharge, for example, climate, land use, and dams. Specific research questions include To what extent do net monthly precipitation rates (PREC − PET) along a river drainage

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