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Jesse O. Bash, Patricia Bresnahan, and David R. Miller

more realistic treatment of sources and sinks, and accounts for biological and soil mercury storage and transport processes. The model accommodates the movement between surface media storage and the flux between the atmosphere and surface interface. Transfer velocities are used to describe the atmosphere–surface water flux and atmosphere–vegetation flux for mercury and other volatile species where concentration gradients are applicable. This approach is applied to mercury as well as other volatile

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Ho-Chun Huang, Xin-Zhong Liang, Kenneth E. Kunkel, Michael Caughey, and Allen Williams

data. These meteorological data and county-level land use information are used to compute biogenic emissions. By using a geographical information system, county-level area, mobile, and biogenic emissions are partitioned to gridded emissions based on fractional county land area in each grid. The ability of the SMOKE system to simulate the emissions pattern in the Midwest realistically has been demonstrated ( Williams et al. 2001 ). The AQM was developed from the San Joaquin Valley Air Quality Study

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M. Talat Odman, Yongtao Hu, Alper Unal, Armistead G. Russell, and James W. Boylan

2018-OTW includes the clean air interstate rule. It was assumed that any potential feedback of future land use and emissions on the meteorology would be negligible. Therefore meteorological inputs developed for the July 2001 and January 2002 periods were also used for the 2018 simulations. Biogenic emissions were also assumed to remain constant in the future. Initial and boundary conditions were derived from a 36-km resolution simulation of 2018 over North America. A two-day ramp-up period was used

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C. Hogrefe, W. Hao, K. Civerolo, J.-Y. Ku, G. Sistla, R. S. Gaza, L. Sedefian, K. Schere, A. Gilliland, and R. Mathur

levels were higher. Predictions of daily averaged PM 2.5 concentrations were overestimated in all seasons when compared with filter-based measurements from FRM monitors in New York State, and there was little seasonal or interannual variation in model bias and model error ( Table 3 ). Next, the analysis for PM 2.5 was repeated with data stratification by land use and the results of this analysis are shown in Table 4 . This analysis reveals that the overprediction of total PM 2.5 mass for the

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Steven R. Hanna, Robert Paine, David Heinold, Elizabeth Kintigh, and Dan Baker

(for AERMOD), and σ z (vertical dispersion). However, surface roughness (implicitly parameterized by assigning either “urban” or “rural” land use to the area around a given source) is also important for ISCST3, because predicted concentrations for the ISCST3-mixed urban/rural option are about 20%–100% greater than for the ISCST3-urban option. In general, there were about four to six of the emissions categories and three of the transport and dispersion model inputs and parameters whose

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Armin Aulinger, Volker Matthias, and Markus Quante

particular environments. The rationale is that if such a quantitative relationship can be established then the most efficient means of reducing the risk by reducing emissions can be sought. This approach is essentially the one adopted in response to the UN-ECE protocol on POPs. An important part of this approach is the use of numerical simulation models of the atmospheric transport of POPs both on a regional European scale and on a global scale. PAHs are semivolatile compounds that can be transported in

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John S. Irwin, William B. Petersen, and Steven C. Howard

location and time represents an individual realization from a population of possible outcomes, which “scatter” in some random fashion about the true ensemble average. Current models attempt to simulate the ensemble averages, but uncertainties arise that are due to limitations in our understanding of atmospheric processes and imperfect input data (e.g., meteorological conditions, emissions, terrain, buildings, and land use). Thus, the observed scatter of observations about model predictions is a

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George Kallos, Marina Astitha, Petros Katsafados, and Chris Spyrou

) , and Kallos et al. (2006) . There are also indications of the existence of transport patterns on larger scales toward/from the Mediterranean region ( Ramanathan et al. 2001 ; Lelieveld et al. 2002 ; Carmichael et al. 2002 ). The current status of knowledge on the above aspects is discussed in this paper, providing some summary remarks on the paths and scales of transport and transformation of PM in the greater Mediterranean region (GMR). The tools used for such analysis are atmospheric and air

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