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Christopher Small

growth could have on the rest of the Earth system in the future. Human transformation of Earth's ecosystems is now recognized to be areally significant (e.g., Cincotta et al., 2000 ; Vitousek et al., 1997 ; Turner et al., 1990 ), but the majority of the human population inhabits a relatively small area. In 1990, over 50% of the human population occupied less than 3% of the ice-free land area ( Small and Cohen, 1999 ; Small and Cohen, 2004 ). The impact of high-density urban land use is different

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In-Young Yeo, Steven I. Gordon, and Jean-Michel Guldmann

to investigate the impacts of land uses/covers on watershed hydrology ( Jolánkai et al., 1999 ; Jordan et al., 1997 ; Bingner and Theurer, 2001 ; Moglen and Beighley, 2002 ; Novotny and Chesters, 1982 ; Singh, 1995 ). Using this knowledge, simulation and statistical models have been developed to 1) explain the land–water interaction, 2) quantify pollution loads, and 3) link pollutants to their sources. Quantitative modeling provides useful tools to analyze land–water interrelationships and

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Ademola K. Braimoh and Paul L. G. Vlek

1. Introduction Land use is determined by biophysical and social variables interacting in space and time ( Turner et al., 1995 ). Descriptive models of land-use and land-cover change (LUCC) are useful when trying to determine the relationship between LUCC and the driving forces. They also improve our understanding of the functioning of land-use systems for planning and policy formulation. To be of value in planning, models that quantify such relationships at different spatial scales are

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Ademola K. Braimoh and Paul L. G. Vlek

opportunity for international trade with neighboring Burkina Faso. It offers nonfarm employment for migrants from smaller localities. These same reasons have made Tamale and its environs a hotspot of land-cover change. Demand for housing is ever increasing, whereas food requirement for the increasing population has made urban and peri-urban agriculture increasingly important. In the face of competing demands for land resources, there is a need to understand the state and dynamics of land use/land cover in

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Christopher Potter, Pusheng Zhang, Steven Klooster, Vanessa Genovese, Shashi Shekhar, and Vipin Kumar

together with climate, land management, and basinscale geographic relationships is presented as a groundwork study to precede distributed simulation modeling of surface hydrologic flows in large river basins. Correlation analysis is used as a screening method to classify river basins into categories based on major controls on discharge, for example, climate, land use, and dams. Specific research questions include To what extent do net monthly precipitation rates (PREC − PET) along a river drainage

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Deborah A. McGrath, Jonathan P. Evans, C. Ken Smith, David G. Haskell, Neil W. Pelkey, Robert R. Gottfried, Charles D. Brockett, Matthew D. Lane, and E. Douglass Williams

shallow sandstone-derived soils underlying the upland forests of the Cumberland Plateau are acidic and low in base cations ( Francis and Loftus, 1977 ), rendering the entire system highly sensitive to nutrient removals from forest harvesting and acid precipitation ( Adams et al., 2000 ). Like much of the forests in the eastern United States, the native deciduous hardwood ecosystems of the Cumberland Plateau have undergone a long history of land-use change driven by agricultural conversion, timber

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Martin-Pierre Lavigne, Alain N. Rousseau, Richard Turcotte, Anne-Marie Laroche, Jean-Pierre Fortin, and Jean-Pierre Villeneuve

'aide d'un Système Informatisé (GIBSI), an integrated modeling and management system ( Rousseau et al., 2000a ; Rousseau et al., 2000b ; Villeneuve et al., 1998 ). By means of simulation models and management modules, GIBSI allows for the simulation of the impact of detailed management scenarios of dams, land use, agricultural diffuse pollution, and point source discharges on water quantity and quality of a watershed river network. A data pre- and postprocessing system manages relations between the

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Gemma T. Narisma and Andrew J. Pitman

1. Introduction Historically, the climate system has been considered to be primarily an atmosphere–ocean problem by global climate and regional climate modelers. In the early 1990s, global climate models included the atmosphere, oceans, sea ice, and a physical representation of the Earth's surface ( Albritton et al., 2001 ), and experiments using these global models that explored the impact of regional-scale land-cover change simply modified land surface parameter values to reflect a change in

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Jeffrey A. Hicke, David B. Lobell, and Gregory P. Asner

). The authors found good agreement between the two estimates. Light-use efficiency factors were estimated for these counties from the two data sources, and spatial patterns of the roles of climate influences in the satellite-derived NPP were identified. A third study investigated cropland area and harvest information in northeastern Colorado as part of a study of land-use change in the region. Parton et al. ( Parton et al., 2003 ) reported decreases in cultivated land areas during 1950–2000 as the

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