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FRANCES C. PARMENTER

mountainswith detectable snow are the Alaska Range, including Mt.Whitney (N), and the Chugach Mountains which stretchsoutheastward along the coast of Alaska.ACKNOWLEDGMENTI would like to thank Mr. Quintus of the Bureau of Land Manage-ment, Ilivision of Fire Control, Department of the Interior, for thesupporting data used. for this articleFIQURE l.-ESSA-9 mosaic, Pass 1518, 2204 QMT, June 27, 1969.

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RALPH K. ANDERSON

Highlands. Variations in surface reflec-tivity make it possible to identify the boundaries of por-tions of several of the physiographic provinces [l] of thisregion. The Adirondacks (a), primarily forested withspruce and fir, appear as a darker area. Here, the conif-erous forest tends to obscure the snow-covered ground.The lighter appearing land immediately east and southof these mountains reflects different land use and differentvegetative cover. More open fields and different vegeta-tion make the area

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FRANCES C. PARMENTER

PICTURE OF THE MONTHSpring Ice Migration NearNewfoundlandFRANCES C. PARMENTER-Applications Group, National Environmental SatelliteIService, NOAA, Suitland, Md.Satellite data has long been used for snow and icesurveillance. During spring 1972, sat,ellites observed theformation, changes, and breaking-up of the pack icealong the Labrador Coast. According to the U.S. NavalOceanographic Office (1972) and Kniskern (1972), thepack ice extended further south and east this year thanat any other season

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FRANCES C. PARMENTER

across the northwesternUnited States. At this t'ime, the 200-mb. jet stream wasanalyzed to cross the coast near Seattle and follow a path,due east, along 48'N. through Idaho and Montana andthen uortheast,ward into Canada.Upper air solmdings for 1200 GMT at Lander, Wyo.(LND), and Great Falls, Mont. (GTF), accompany the1435 GMT ESSA-2 photograph in figure 1. At this time,low clouds are present near LND and middle and highclouds at, GTF. Little direct,ional wind shear is indicatedat bot#h these stations

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JOHN H. CONOVER

supercooledurements and comparison with a nearby sounding, it was liquid-droplet low cloud to cause snow at the ground.found that the cloud tops coincided with the tropopause.A fine example of orographic cloudiness at high levelsis shown in figure 1, the visible (fig. 1A) and infrared(IR) imagery (fig. 1B) derived from the very high resolu-tion radiometers (VHRR) aboard NOAA 2. These photo-graphs cover upper New York State, New England,and adjacent portions of Canada.The land is covered with snow except for

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Werner Alpers, Andrei Yu. Ivanov, and Knut-Frode Dagestad

1. Introduction At least since 1978, when the first spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images became available from the American Seasat satellite, it has been known that SAR can sense finescale features of the near-surface wind field. But only in the last few years have robust algorithms been developed, which can be used operationally to retrieve near-surface wind fields from SAR images acquired of the ocean. The aim of this paper is to draw the attention of modelers to spaceborne SAR

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EDWARD A. JESSUP

278MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW Vol. 99, No. 4'UDC 661.6l5.2661.607.362.2(084.1)(786)"1970.09.17'PICTURE OF THE MONTH Tropical Storm Felice in Oklahoma EDWARD A. JESSUPNational Severe Storms Laboratory, Research Laboratories, NOAA, Norman, Okla.The satellite and land-based radar photographs in figure1* show tropical storm Felice over Oklahoma at 0754 CSTon Sept. 17, 1970. The square at the upper left and theenlargement at the lower right in figure 1C outline theregion of the storm as

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WOODROW W. LENNON and CLYDE P. THOMAS

Charleston, S.C.,t,o just south of Cape Fear to 30 n.mi. south of Cape Look-out. This illustrates that the rather stable air mass nearthe coastline and over land became unstable a shortdistance from the coast with thundershowers occurringover the water. The tops of the thundershowers weregenerally 25,000 ft, and the cells mere moving t.omard thenortheast at 10 kt.Figure 3 is the surface chart for 0700 EST on June 6,1969. An invert,ed trough of lorn pressure extends fromFlorida northward, just off shore

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RALPH K. ANDERSON

934 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW Vol. 98, No. 12UDC 551.515.E2:551.507.382.2:5!i1.576.1:5!i1.521.18(084.1)(~1.1) *11~.09.M"PICTURE OF THE MONTHAn Atlantic Cold Front, Satellite Infrared and Visual Data Compared RALPH K. ANDERSONApplications Group, National Environmental Satellite Service, NOAA, Washington, D.C.Clouds viewed in infrared (IR) are similar in appearance Figures 1A and 1B depict clouds associated with theto familiar TV data that meteorologists routinely use in North Atlantic

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David M. Schultz, Derek S. Arndt, David J. Stensrud, and Jay W. Hanna

produce parallel cloud bands (or cloud streets), which can be a common occurrence in the atmosphere (e.g., Kuettner 1959 , 1971 ; Atkinson and Zhang 1996 ; Weckwerth et al. 1997 ; Young et al. 2002 ). The mechanisms that lead to HCR development can be grouped into either thermal or dynamic instabilities. Because the event on 23 January 2003 was associated with cold continental air flowing over a relatively warm land surface, the thermal-instability mechanism is a likely candidate. For such a

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