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Jian Zhang and Youcun Qi

1. Introduction The National Mosaic and the next-generation quantitative precipitation estimation (Q2) system (NMQ; more information available online at http://nmq.ou.edu ; Seo et al. 2005 ; Vasiloff et al. 2007 ) is a real-time test bed for the research, development, and evaluation of national multisensor precipitation products. One of the NMQ products is the radar-based precipitation estimate that uses adaptive Z – R relationships ( Xu et al. 2008 ). The NMQ precipitation products have

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James A. Smith, Gabriele Villarini, and Mary Lynn Baeck

). Lagrangian analyses of rainfall distribution and storm evolution are presented for flood events in the eastern United States ( section 3 ) and used to motivate new directions for stochastic modeling of rainfall and characterizing spatial extremes of flood magnitudes ( section 4 ). Spatial heterogeneities in flood peak distributions due to orographic precipitation mechanisms in mountainous terrain, coastal circulations near land–ocean boundaries, and urbanization impacts on regional climate are central

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Yudong Tian, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, and John B. Eylander

coverage gaps with IR-based estimates, 3B42 uses the monthly accumulation of global surface gauge measurements to rescale the satellite-based estimates in post–real time. This procedure results in estimates with substantially reduced biases, especially on the time scales of a month or longer. Smith et al. (2006) used the median of the long-term mean values from an ensemble of satellite-based products as the reference value, to estimate and reduce biases in satellite-based estimates, especially over

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Ali Behrangi, Bisher Imam, Kuolin Hsu, Soroosh Sorooshian, Timothy J. Bellerby, and George J. Huffman

microwave imager derived global rainfall estimates for climatological applications. J. Geophys. Res. , 102 , 16715 – 16736 . 10.1029/97JD01210 Ferraro, R. R. , Weng F. , Grody N. C. , and Zhao L. , 2000 : Precipitation characteristics over land from the NOAA-15 AMSU sensor. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 27 , 2669 – 2672 . 10.1029/2000GL011665 Hong, Y. , Hsu K. L. , Sorooshian S. , and Gao X. G. , 2004 : Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural

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Dusanka Zupanski, Sara Q. Zhang, Milija Zupanski, Arthur Y. Hou, and Samson H. Cheung

departures; for instance, a 10-K bias in the 89-GHz channel based on 300 departures collected in the raining area, the number of observations used in the check procedure is not sufficient to formulate a reliable bias correction. An online bias correction is yet to be developed and implemented. However, because the experiment is set overland, bias from using different microwave land surface emissivity schemes is examined. For instance, simulated brightness temperatures at 24 GHz using the Goddard land

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Timothy J. Lang, Steven A. Rutledge, and Robert Cifelli

and LeMone 1989 ; Hu and Srivastava 1995 ; Rosenfeld and Lensky 1998 ; Atlas and Ulbrich 2000 , 2006 ; Ulbrich and Atlas 2007 ). These two archetypes have been invoked to explain, among other things, observed regional variability in latent heating profiles ( Tao et al. 2001 , 2006 , 2010 ) as well as the observed land–ocean contrast in lightning flash rates ( Orville and Spencer 1979 ; Zipser and Lutz 1994 ; Boccippio et al. 2000 ; Nesbitt et al. 2000 ; Toracinta et al. 2002 ; Xu et al

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Jonathan J. Gourley, Scott E. Giangrande, Yang Hong, Zachary L. Flamig, Terry Schuur, and Jasper A. Vrugt

saturated soils and raised water levels in the nearby Horsetooth reservoir. These designated parameter settings were then transferred to the Spring Creek watershed for the flooding event, and reference simulations were created with inputs from CHILL rainfall estimates. Sensitivity studies indicated errors in the spatiotemporal distribution of rainfall estimation impacted runoff simulations more significantly than details represented in the hydrologic model’s land surface parameters. Both studies used

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F. M. Ralph, T. Coleman, P. J. Neiman, R. J. Zamora, and M. D. Dettinger

/I is not useable over land. The center of the AR’s parent extratropical cyclone is evidenced by the curled-up area of enhanced IWV off the Pacific Northwest coast. The AR is striking the observing area (purple box) in California, is one of the long-duration AR events studied, and created the peak streamflow on Austin Creek for water-year 2010. (b) Terrain base map of Northern California’s Russian River watershed [see box in (a)] showing the locations of the observing systems, including the ARO at

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R. Uijlenhoet, J.-M. Cohard, and M. Gosset

. A. R. , Meijninger W. M. L. , and Schipper F. , 2002 : Experiences from one-year continuous operation of a large aperture scintillometer over a heterogeneous land surface . Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 105 , 85 – 97 . Bradley, S. G. , Stow C. D. , and Lynch-Blosse C. A. , 2000 : Measurements of rainfall properties using long optical path imaging . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 17 , 761 – 772 . Cain, J. D. , Rosier P. T. W. , Meijninger W. , and de Bruin H. A. R. , 2001

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F. M. Ralph, E. Sukovich, D. Reynolds, M. Dettinger, S. Weagle, W. Clark, and P. J. Neiman

-term nature make them invaluable for assessing the frequency of occurrence of extreme precipitation amounts. Additionally, the COOP sites represent point measurements; however, the QPE used elsewhere in this paper are obtained from 4 km × 4 km gridded datasets. For this reason, the COOP data have not been used directly for verification of the gridded forecasts. Because of the geographic variability of precipitation behavior in different regions of the contiguous United States (e.g., land-falling tropical

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