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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

. Land surface albedos are derived from retrievals of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Moody et al. 2005 ). MERRA uses the global 30 arc-second elevation dataset (GTOPO30) produced by the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center of the U.S. Geological Survey ( Gesch 1994 ). For each analysis, the system incorporates the state of the background forecast model, which is taken at the analysis time, at 3 h prior and at 3 h after the time, with all the available

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

( Koster et al. 2000 ) and a sophisticated multilayer snow model ( Stieglitz et al. 2001 ) that is coupled to the catchment hydrology. Land surface albedos are derived from retrievals of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Moody et al. 2005 ). The global 30 arc-second elevation dataset (GTOPO30) produced by the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center of the U.S. Geological Survey ( Gesch 1994 ) is used in MERRA. MERRA utilizes the incremental analysis update (IAU

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Xiaolei Niu and Rachel T. Pinker

the changes in ozone, cloudiness, and surface albedo were dealt with in Bernhard et al. (2007) . In a comprehensive investigation by Dong et al. (2010) using 10 yr of cloud and radiative flux observations collected by the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), it is reported that the longwave cloud-radiative forcing (CRF) has a high positive correlations (0.8–0.9) with cloud fraction, liquid water path, and radiating

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Sohey Nihashi, Kay I. Ohshima, and Noriaki Kimura

temperatures of the ice fraction (Tb i ) and that of the open water fraction (Tb w ) under the ice concentration ( A ), as follows: The value of Tb i for the grid cell can be obtained from Eq. (A2) using the brightness temperature of the open ocean near the ice edge as Tb w . In this study, we set reference points along the direction of ice advance at intervals of 1° latitude and longitude ( Fig. 1 ). The presence of ice is examined at each point from the land side, and the brightness temperature of the

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Matthew R. Mazloff

suggest a strong sensitivity to the zonal wind speed at the Drake Passage latitudes and to the strength of the overturning in the polar gyres. In short, what sets the mean ACC transport through Drake Passage is still a major outstanding question in physical oceanography, and this confusion makes it difficult to predict how the ACC will react to changing winds. The response of the ACC to surface buoyancy and momentum fluxes has been investigated extensively with numerical models. The models used

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Ivana Cerovečki, Lynne D. Talley, and Matthew R. Mazloff

Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), 1979–present; and the new National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), 1979–present. Even more are on the horizon, including JRA-55 and ERA-75. We here make use of the ERA-Interim (hereafter ERA) ( Simmons et al. 2006 ), the NCEP–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis 1 (hereafter NCEP1) ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ), the

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, Kei Yoshimura, and Masao Kanamitsu

). Here, to improve the resolution of the SST forcing in the DPRD10 reanalysis, we employed daily 0.25° × 0.25° resolution optimum interpolation SST analysis version 2 ( Reynolds et al. 2007 ). This SST product uses both the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer infrared satellite, which has good coverage in cloud-free regions near land, and the AMSR-E satellite, which can see through the year-round clouds in the Southern Ocean. This high-resolution SST product was shown to agree with observations

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