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Aaron Johnson and Xuguang Wang

) and Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG; Mlawer et al. 1997 ) longwave radiation schemes, and the Noah ( Ek et al. 2003 ) land surface model. The forecasts are on the convection-permitting 4-km domain ( Fig. 1 ), so no cumulus parameterization is used. In addition to the deterministic forecasts described above, three experiments are performed using different PBL configurations during DA and 20-member ensemble forecasts to evaluate the analysis quality ( Table 2 ). The three experiments

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Sean Stelten and William A. Gallus Jr.

consolidated into a disorganized MCS ( Figs. 2c,d ). Among the WRF runs, only the ACM2 PBL run did not produce the type 1 CI event at all ( Figs. 15j–l ). Because the Pleim–Xiu land surface scheme must be used when the ACM2 PBL scheme is used instead of the Noah land surface model used in the other three configurations, sensitivity tests were run with the other three PBL schemes also using the Pleim–Xiu scheme for the 24 June case. Simulations were not sensitive to this change in the land surface scheme

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Aaron Johnson, Xuguang Wang, and Samuel Degelia

forecasts, as described in Part I . The forecast ensemble microphysics and boundary layer parameterization configurations in Table 2 follow the “MULTI” configuration from Part I because this configuration provided the best combination of forecast performance and ensemble spread of the three configurations considered in Part I (see also Johnson et al. 2011 ). All ensemble members used the Noah land surface model, Goddard shortwave radiation, and RRTMG longwave radiation schemes. b. Forecast

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