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Johnathan J. Metz, Dale R. Durran, and Peter N. Blossey

every 6 h. The outermost domain was allowed to spin up for 6 h before the inner domains were initialized. Physical parameterizations used were Thompson microphysics, YSU planetary boundary layer (PBL) physics, Kain–Fritsch cumulus (for the outermost domain only), Dudhia shortwave and RRTM longwave radiation, Monin–Obukhov surface layer physics, and the Noah land surface model (LSM). The domain included 108 vertical levels, with vertical grid spacing increasing from 56 m near the surface to 1190 m at

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Stephen D. Eckermann, Dave Broutman, Jun Ma, James D. Doyle, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Katrina Bossert, Bifford P. Williams, David C. Fritts, and Ronald B. Smith

Aqua satellite in September 2003 and found three-dimensional gravity waves in the upper stratosphere emanating from the small subantarctic island of South Georgia. Alexander et al. (2009) inferred significant momentum flux deposition from these waves and, since global models typically treat grid cells containing small islands as ocean rather than land, they speculated that omission of gravity wave drag from small subantarctic islands might explain some or all of the stratospheric “cold pole

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Ronald B. Smith, Alison D. Nugent, Christopher G. Kruse, David C. Fritts, James D. Doyle, Steven D. Eckermann, Michael J. Taylor, Andreas Dörnbrack, M. Uddstrom, William Cooper, Pavel Romashkin, Jorgen Jensen, and Stuart Beaton

allow us to compare stratospheric waves over mountainous terrain with those over the sea using the same platform and instruments. Is there a significant difference between land and sea gravity waves? Are the waves over the sea in excess of our threshold detection level? Figure 4 shows EF z plotted against the distance between the leg center and a Mt. Cook reference point (43.60°S, 170.14°E). Legs with distances greater than 300 km are primarily ocean legs but may include a few transects over

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Qingfang Jiang, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, and Bifford P. Williams

that terrain plays in STW formation, we have carried out an additional set of five sensitivity simulations. The model configurations for these simulations are identical to the control run of IOP 6 except that the NZ terrain is replaced with modified or idealized terrain. These simulations include a no-terrain (NOTRN; terrain height over the New Zealand is set to 0.1 m with the nonzero elevation used to distinguish land and water surfaces), a half-terrain (HFTRN; i.e., the terrain height is reduced

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