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Benjamin C. Trabing, Michael M. Bell, and Bonnie R. Brown

(RCE), and as such the impact of upper-tropospheric temperature modification on intensity has primarily been evaluated on long time scales >100 days in RCE ( Emanuel et al. 2013 ). Ramsay (2013) analyzed the effects of colder tropopause temperatures on TC intensity using a nonhydrostatic, axisymmetric, cloud-resolving model in RCE over 120 days. Ramsay found that the maximum intensity of their 2D simulated TCs increased by 1 m s −1 K −1 cooling of the prescribed tropopause temperature and

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Jonathan Martinez, Michael M. Bell, Robert F. Rogers, and James D. Doyle

calculate both kinematic and thermodynamic gradients. Because of these limitations, observational studies have typically used vertical vorticity as a proxy for PV. Doppler radar data and in situ measurements have been utilized in both composite and case studies to demonstrate that intensifying TCs are characterized by a ringlike structure of vorticity with a maximum located off the axis of rotation, radially inward of the RMW ( Kossin and Eastin 2001 ; Rogers et al. 2013a , 2015 ; Martinez et al

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