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Bowen Zhou and Fotini Katopodes Chow

surface layer. On the finest grid, the vertical resolution is 20 m with 5-m near-surface spacing. The land surface is represented with high-resolution terrain (10 m) and land cover (30 m) from the U.S. Geological Survey. A buffer zone of 10 grid points is used to merge topography between adjacent nests. A Rayleigh-damping layer is set for the top 33% of the domain for the 2400- and 240-m grid and top 20% for the 50-m grid. Some key model parameters are given in Table 1 . Table 1. List of nested

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James D. Doyle and Dale R. Durran

) techniques. The 2D and 3D simulations are initialized using a reference state approximating the conditions upstream of the Colorado Front Range on 3 March 1991. This particular case is significant because, not only were rotors observed, but also because a United Airlines B737 crashed while attempting to land at Colorado Springs during the event. The sounding used to initialize the basic state in these simulations, as shown in Fig. 2 , is based on the potential temperature and cross-mountain wind

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Patrick A. Reinecke and Dale R. Durran

circulations in the initial conditions. Anthes et al. (1985) argued that the predictability of many mesoscale phenomena can substantially exceed that suggested by Lorenz if they are sufficiently organized by the large-scale flow (e.g., fronts) or controlled by well-known external forcing such as orography, thermal contrasts, or other land-use characteristics. Klemp and Lilly (1975) presented some of the earliest results suggesting that topography may enhance mesoscale predictability. They predicted

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