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Mimi Stith, Alessandra Giannini, John del Corral, Susana Adamo, and Alex de Sherbinin

1950s and 1960s to persistent dry conditions in the 1970s and 1980s is, in magnitude and spatial extent, unparalleled globally in the instrumental record ( Nicholson 2000 ; Hulme 2001 ; Trenberth et al. 2007 ; Greene et al. 2009 ). During the early 1970s, meteorologists posited that the drying was the result of local human activity in a positive feedback loop between poor land use practices, land degradation, and atmospheric response ( Charney 1975 ). Predating acid rain and global warming, the

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Rahul S. Todmal

(selected five basins) and over all the four subdivisions of Maharashtra ( Sinha Ray and Shewale 2001 ) as well. Figure 4a shows the lowest SPI over the study area in the year 2003, as it was the worst drought recorded after 1972 (in terms of coverage) and has adversely affected the land use and land cover in the Krishna basin (including the present study area) ( Messina 2013 ). Similarly, the drought condition in 2012 (with SPI < −1.5) severely affected the agrarian economy in the rain shadow zone of

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