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John Xun Yang, Darren S. Mckague, and Christopher S. Ruf

using standard open-ocean algorithms invalid. This phenomenon is often referred to as land contamination. To further illustrate the land contamination problem, Fig. 2 shows an example of the observed brightness temperature (TB) by SSM/I over the Great Lakes. Coastal areas of all lakes are contaminated: in particular, the SSM/I footprint extends across all of Lake Ontario, so that all of the lake data are contaminated. Because of land contamination, coastal data have to be discarded without

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Andrew K. Heidinger, Istvan Laszlo, Christine C. Molling, and Dan Tarpley

Surface and Insolation Products (GSIP) and Clouds from AVHRR Extended (CLAVR-x) systems. GSIP LST data are used by the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) to monitor the performance of the modeled surface temperature ( Meng et al. 2003 ). Long-term LST records from GOES and AVHRR are also provided within the Pathfinder Atmospheres–Extended (PATMOS-x) climate dataset ( Heidinger et al. 2013 ) and have been used in several research studies. It

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Margaret A. LeMone and Lesley F. Tarleton

650 JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 3The Use of Inertial Altitude in the Determination of the Convective-ScalePressure Field over Land MARGARET A. LE]VIONE AND LESLEY F. TARLETON National Center for Atmospheric Research,* Boulder, Colorado 80507 (Manuscript received 23 January 1986, in final form 9 May 1986) ABSTRACT Pressure perturbations are measured from an aircraft by

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K. S. Godwin, S. F. J. De Wekker, and G. D. Emmitt

1. Introduction Doppler lidars have the ability to accurately retrieve atmospheric winds at high spatial and temporal resolution. Because of the reduction in cost, size, and power consumption of lasers, Doppler wind lidars are becoming more accessible to the atmospheric research community ( Werner 2005 ) and their use has become more widespread. Many important insights into atmospheric flow patterns have been obtained from ground-based (e.g., Post and Neff 1986 ; Banta et al. 1993

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B. S. Sandeepan, V. G. Panchang, S. Nayak, K. Krishna Kumar, and J. M. Kaihatu

synoptic forcing will tend to preclude small-scale thermal circulations, whereas strong sea and land breezes could be expected during periods of weak synoptic forcing. Fig . 1. Study area showing (left) topography and locations of 19 AWS and (right) two offshore buoys. To simulate near-surface atmospheric conditions, several factors must be represented adequately. These include topography, land use, soil properties, and the appropriate boundary layer parameterization ( Shafran et al. 2000 ; Cheng and

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Benjamin Lenoir, Donald Banfield, and David A. Caughey

constraints on the possible separation distance, and 2) how to correct the measurements for these perturbations to recover the original unperturbed flow characteristics. The motivation for this study came from the development of a novel anemometer for use on Mars ( Banfield and Dissly 2005 ) that will allow fast (>10 Hz), precise (<5 cm s −1 ), and 3D measurements of the wind in this low-density atmosphere. Wind measurements were carried out on the Viking landers ( Tillman et al. 1994 ), Mars Pathfinder

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Eun-Kyoung Seo, Guosheng Liu, Myoung-Seok Suh, and Byung-Ju Sohn

and cloud properties ( Olson et al. 1999 ; Kummerow et al. 2000 , 2001 ). Unlike the ocean algorithm that makes full use of emission and scattering signatures from observations at multiple frequencies, the land rain algorithm mainly relies on the scattering signature at 85 GHz by ice particles ( Spencer et al. 1989 ; McCollum and Ferraro 2003 ; Kummerow and Ferraro 2006 ). Because of the complexity of land surface emissivity and the less direct relationship between ice scattering and surface

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George R. Diak

cloud waterestimates made using the 183-GHz water vapor channel pair 19 and 20 of the AMSU is poorest for a watersurface and higher for land surfaces with higher emissivity. The quality of the estimates made using these watervapor channels is shown to strongly depend on the quality of the atmospheric guess used in the procedures.1. Introduction In Huang and Diak (1992, henceforth HD), amethod was introduced for evaluating an effectivecloud-top pressure and an effective cloud fraction usinga

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M. Gabella and G. Perona

maps). Such small-scale variations are also caused by the presence of urban areas not inserted in the σ 0 scattering model. The difficulty in implementing a more realistic surface scattering model is not only caused by the lack of experimental values of σ 0 at near-grazing angles but also by the absence of a land use–land cover map detailed enough for the calculation. Furthermore, a DEM with a higher spatial resolution should be adopted (especially in the mountainous areas). 4. Conclusions and

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Thomas M. Smith, Phillip A. Arkin, Li Ren, and Samuel S. P. Shen

beginning in 1900. Each study provides some improvement. Because the historical precipitation data used for reconstruction over ocean areas are sparse, we continue to seek improvements in analysis methods, understanding problems, and uncertainty quantification. The reconstruction described here is the latest in the series of studies. It gives the greatest improvement in the spatial resolution of oceanic precipitation patterns, along with some improvements in land–area precipitation. The greatest

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