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James Edson, Timothy Crawford, Jerry Crescenti, Tom Farrar, Nelson Frew, Greg Gerbi, Costas Helmis, Tihomir Hristov, Djamal Khelif, Andrew Jessup, Haf Jonsson, Ming Li, Larry Mahrt, Wade McGillis, Albert Plueddemann, Lian Shen, Eric Skyllingstad, Tim Stanton, Peter Sullivan, Jielun Sun, John Trowbridge, Dean Vickers, Shouping Wang, Qing Wang, Robert Weller, John Wilkin, Albert J. Williams III, D. K. P. Yue, and Chris Zappa

The Office of Naval Research's Coupled Boundary Layers and Air–Sea Transfer (CBLAST) program is being conducted to investigate the processes that couple the marine boundary layers and govern the exchange of heat, mass, and momentum across the air–sea interface. CBLAST-LOW was designed to investigate these processes at the low-wind extreme where the processes are often driven or strongly modulated by buoyant forcing. The focus was on conditions ranging from negligible wind stress, where buoyant forcing dominates, up to wind speeds where wave breaking and Langmuir circulations play a significant role in the exchange processes. The field program provided observations from a suite of platforms deployed in the coastal ocean south of Martha's Vineyard. Highlights from the measurement campaigns include direct measurement of the momentum and heat fluxes on both sides of the air–sea interface using a specially constructed Air–Sea Interaction Tower (ASIT), and quantification of regional oceanic variability over scales of O(1–104 mm) using a mesoscale mooring array, aircraft-borne remote sensors, drifters, and ship surveys. To our knowledge, the former represents the first successful attempt to directly and simultaneously measure the heat and momentum exchange on both sides of the air–sea interface. The latter provided a 3D picture of the oceanic boundary layer during the month-long main experiment. These observations have been combined with numerical models and direct numerical and large-eddy simulations to investigate the processes that couple the atmosphere and ocean under these conditions. For example, the oceanic measurements have been used in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to investigate the 3D evolution of regional ocean thermal stratification. The ultimate goal of these investigations is to incorporate improved parameterizations of these processes in coupled models such as the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) to improve marine forecasts of wind, waves, and currents.

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L. Cavaleri, B. Fox-Kemper, and M. Hemer

layers. Basic ideas: Wave breaking injects turbulence in the upper layers of the ocean. Wave orbital motion induces turbulence (still debated). Wave-induced Langmuir circulation leads to a vigorous mixing of the oceanic boundary layer. Wind waves are a primary source of turbulent energy into the surface ocean, and thereby aid in mixing heat, mass, and other tracers throughout the boundary layer. Three wave-related mechanisms are noted ( Babanin et al. 2009 ): the injection of turbulence in the course

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Mark A. Hemer, Xiaolan L. Wang, Ralf Weisse, and Val R. Swail

approximate Langmuir circulations driving mixing in the surface ocean mixed layer, and wave-dependent variability of sensible and latent heat fluxes into the atmosphere), mass fluxes (e.g., marine aerosol production, and bubble injection into the ocean by breaking waves and associated oceanic uptake of CO 2 ), the radiation budget (e.g., increased albedo by whitecapping waves), and the influence of waves on the marginal ice zone extent (with influence on all above listed processes). Including wave

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Janet Sprintall, Victoria J. Coles, Kevin A. Reed, Amy H. Butler, Gregory R. Foltz, Stephen G. Penny, and Hyodae Seo

, 2019 : Challenges and prospects in ocean circulation models . Front. Mar. Sci. , 6 , 65 , https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00065 . 10.3389/fmars.2019.00065 Gille , S. , and Coauthors , 2018 : Open code policy for NASA space science: A perspective from NASA-supported ocean modeling and ocean data analysis. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine White Paper, 5 pp., www.nap.edu/resource/25217/whitepapers/pdf/41_GilleSarahT.pdf . 10.17226/25217_41 Hoffman , R. N. , and R

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Andrew Brown, Sean Milton, Mike Cullen, Brian Golding, John Mitchell, and Ann Shelly

. Milton , and M. A. Brooks , 2007 : Evaluation of the Met Office global forecast model using Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) data . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 133 , 1993 – 2010 . Arribas , A. , and Coauthors , 2011 : The GloSea4 ensemble prediction system for seasonal forecasting . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 139 , 1891 – 1910 . Belcher , S. E. , and Coauthors , 2012 : A global perspective on Langmuir turbulence in the ocean surface boundary layer . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 39

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Katja Friedrich, Robert L. Grossman, Justin Huntington, Peter D. Blanken, John Lenters, Kathleen D. Holman, David Gochis, Ben Livneh, James Prairie, Erik Skeie, Nathan C. Healey, Katharine Dahm, Christopher Pearson, Taryn Finnessey, Simon J. Hook, and Ted Kowalski

reservoirs that might be candidates for increasing reservoir volume. Evaporation can also be artificially reduced using engineering methods such as i) applying organic monolayers (e.g., Langmuir and Schaefer 1943 ; Archer and La Mer 1955 ; Costin and Barnes 1975 ; Rosano and La Mer 1956 ; Bean and Florey 1968 ; Folkers et al. 1994 ; Barnes 1986 ; McJannet et al. 2008 ), ii) bringing cooler water to the surface, and iii) applying shade cloths ( Craig et al. 2005 ; Martinez-Alvarez 2009, 2010) or

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J. Boutin, Y. Chao, W. E. Asher, T. Delcroix, R. Drucker, K. Drushka, N. Kolodziejczyk, T. Lee, N. Reul, G. Reverdin, J. Schanze, A. Soloviev, L. Yu, J. Anderson, L. Brucker, E. Dinnat, A. Santos-Garcia, W. L. Jones, C. Maes, T. Meissner, W. Tang, N. Vinogradova, and B. Ward

; Hernandez et al. 2014 ; Hasson et al. 2013 ). This new capability provides an unprecedented global view of surface salinity, a key state variable that determines ocean circulation and is tied to the global water cycle ( Reul et al. 2014c ). These satellite-derived salinity data provide new insight into the spatial and temporal variability of SSS ( Alory et al. 2012 ; Busecke et al. 2014 ; Hasson et al. 2014 ; Kolodziejczyk et al. 2015 ; Lee et al. 2014 ; Menezes et al. 2014 ; Qu et al. 2014

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James N. Moum, Simon P. de Szoeke, William D. Smyth, James B. Edson, H. Langley DeWitt, Aurélie J. Moulin, Elizabeth J. Thompson, Christopher J. Zappa, Steven A. Rutledge, Richard H. Johnson, and Christopher W. Fairall

). Shortly after 1000 UTC, temperature traces show a narrowband oscillation of alternating cool and warm fluid. The period, 3–4 min, is consistent with velocity signals measured by Doppler sonar. This oscillatory motion suggests the presence of Langmuir circulations, which reach to the base of the mixed layer, entrain fluid from there, and bring it to the surface. Langmuir circulations are a unique sea surface cooling mechanism not directly included in our measurements of subsurface turbulent heat flux

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Kunio Yoneyama, Chidong Zhang, and Charles N. Long

is the only large tropical ocean that is bounded by land in three directions. It is therefore the ocean that experiences the strongest influence of the monsoons. The monsoon circulation and the trade winds over the Indian Ocean induce unusually shallow thermocline in the middle of the basin, known as the Seychelles–Chagos thermocline ridge ( Vialard et al. 2009 ), and strong eastward surface current along the equator, the Wyrtki jet, which appears semiannually during the monsoon transition

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