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Mozhgan Amiramjadi, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Mohammad Mirzaei, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

the middle atmosphere. This becomes ever more important as the top of the atmospheric models is extended in the middle atmosphere, which is greatly affected by forcing and variability of the Rossby and gravity waves. The development of instruments (e.g., lidar, radar, and satellite imagery) that monitor the upper atmosphere layers improves our knowledge of wave interactions and can be helpful in upgrading the nonorographic wave drag schemes. Observations confirm that a significant part of the

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

higher altitudes (e.g., Siskind 2014 ). Thereby, the wind field and the thermal structure of the middle atmosphere are modified (e.g., Lindzen 1981 ; Holton and Alexander 2000 ). Internal gravity waves have been measured and analyzed with a large variety of active and passive remote sensing techniques as well as with in situ observations. These observational tools include airborne and ground-based lidars (e.g., Alexander et al. 2011 ; Dörnbrack et al 2002 ; Rauthe et al. 2008 ; Williams et al

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Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, and Marion Maturilli

1. Introduction The “picture of the month” as presented in this short contribution is not a photo of the sky spontaneously shot from a digital camera. The picture as displayed in Fig. 1 is a combination of spaceborne measurements by the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument on board the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations ( CALIPSO ) satellite during one of several Arctic overpasses on 30 December 2015 and a high-resolution short

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David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, P.-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reinecke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, Ruth S. Lieberman, Brian Laughman, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Steven F. Williams, Gonzalo Hernandez, Damian J. Murphy, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Iain M. Reid, and Jun Ma

aircraft for global in situ measurements that enabled comparisons of GW responses to various sources (e.g., Nastrom and Fritts 1992 ; Fritts and Nastrom 1992 ). The Airborne Lidar and Observations of Hawaiian Airglow 1990 (ALOHA-90) and the Airborne Lidar and Observations of Hawaiian Airglow/Arctic Noctilucent Cloud Campaign 1993 (ALOHA/ANLC-93) measurement programs employed a lidar and ASI to sample GWs extending from the stratosphere into the MLT ( Hostetler et al. 1991 ; Hostetler and Gardner

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Sonja Gisinger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Vivien Matthias, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Benedikt Ehard, Lars Hoffmann, Bernd Kaifler, Christopher G. Kruse, and Markus Rapp

system north of the North Island, with a strong pressure gradient toward the south leading to a strong westerly flow (W regime; Fig. 2c ). The latter flow regime is prone to excite mountain waves and was found for 9.8% of the reanalyses. It prevailed for some consecutive days only at the end of July and beginning of August, after the aircraft deployment concluded [ground-based lidar and radiosonde observations continued through this period at Lauder; see Kaifler et al. (2015) and Ehard et al

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Tanja C. Portele, Andreas Dörnbrack, Johannes S. Wagner, Sonja Gisinger, Benedikt Ehard, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, and Markus Rapp

-based lidar observations in the lee of New Zealand’s Alps during DEEPWAVE revealed enhanced gravity wave activity in the stratosphere and mesosphere, which lasted about 1–3 days and alternated with quiescent periods ( Kaifler et al. 2015 ). The gravity wave forcing due to passing weather systems, the appearance of tropopause jets, and the middle atmosphere wave response were all observed with a similar frequency and duration of 2–4 days ( Fritts et al. 2016 ; Gisinger et al. 2017 ). The episodic nature

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