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Syed Ismail, Richard A. Ferrare, Edward V. Browell, Gao Chen, Bruce Anderson, Susan A. Kooi, Anthony Notari, Carolyn F. Butler, Sharon Burton, Marta Fenn, Jason P. Dunion, Gerry Heymsfield, T. N. Krishnamurti, and Mrinal K. Biswas

during NAMMA showed the occurrence of rapid enhancements and subsequent decreases in aerosol content of the SAL every few days. Episodic SAL events with distinctive boundaries and sudden intensity enhancements as seen in satellite imagery (and confirmed by lidar backscatter observations) are termed “SAL events” in this paper. The SAL is a synoptic-scale feature containing warm, dust-laden air transported from the Sahel and Saharan regions of northern Africa ( Carlson and Prospero 1972 ). The layers

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R. A. Hansell, S. C. Tsay, Q. Ji, N. C. Hsu, M. J. Jeong, S. H. Wang, J. S. Reid, K. N. Liou, and S. C. Ou

results for the dust detection/retrieval, dust surface DRE LW , LW heating rates, TOA DRE LW , and the sensitivity studies to dust microphysics/composition. Finally, a summary is given in section 6 . 2. Data (observations and model) a. Instruments and measurements Key instruments used in the study include the SMART–COMMIT AERI, a multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR), micropulse lidar (MPL), APS-3321, and precision infrared radiometer (PIR). Details of each instrument can be found online

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Andrew J. Heymsfield, Aaron Bansemer, Gerald Heymsfield, and Alexandre O. Fierro

absorption lidar (DIAL) showed a layer of high aerosol extinction (proportional to the scattering extinction ratio)—that is, dust—extending from the ocean surface to about 4 km (all heights MSL; Fig. 4 ). A dropsonde released at 1240 UTC (time indicated in Fig. 4 ) when the DC8 was about 110 km west of the updraft core support the LASE humidity observations. A moist layer was located from the surface to 1.7 km, coinciding with a thin cloud layer in the LASE data near 1.0 and 1.7 km. The SAL, as

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