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J. Bühl, S. Alexander, S. Crewell, A. Heymsfield, H. Kalesse, A. Khain, M. Maahn, K. Van Tricht, and M. Wendisch

system, and understanding of the relation between cloud microphysics, aerosols, life cycle, and optical properties is needed in order make projections about the future development of Earth’s climate ( Fan et al. 2016 ). This chapter summarizes how combined observations with optical instrumentation (active: lidars; passive: imaging spectrometers) and microwave sensors (active: radars; passive: microwave radiometers) can be used to derive crucial measurements about the microphysical, dynamical, and

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A. Korolev, G. McFarquhar, P. R. Field, C. Franklin, P. Lawson, Z. Wang, E. Williams, S. J. Abel, D. Axisa, S. Borrmann, J. Crosier, J. Fugal, M. Krämer, U. Lohmann, O. Schlenczek, M. Schnaiter, and M. Wendisch

remote sensing of mixed-phase clouds: principles, challenges, and limitations There are a variety of active and passive remote sensors for mixed-phase cloud identification and quantification covering wavelengths from near-UV to millimeter wavelengths. These remote sensor observations are available from different platforms. For the convenience of discussion, we group them into the following categories: lidar, radar, moderate-spectral-resolution radiometer, high-spectral-resolution radiometer, and

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D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and R. A. Ferrare

scattering), and thus the signal-to-noise ratio hampered many atmospheric studies using this technique. The stringent requirements of frequency control on the online wavelength made the laser transmitters in DIAL systems extremely complicated, and hindered their development. It was not until the late 1980s, when higher-power and better-quality lasers were developed as well as greatly improved detection technologies, that the atmospheric Raman lidar and DIAL observations regained the “luster” they had in

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Jeffrey L. Stith, Darrel Baumgardner, Julie Haggerty, R. Michael Hardesty, Wen-Chau Lee, Donald Lenschow, Peter Pilewskie, Paul L. Smith, Matthias Steiner, and Holger Vömel

.g., Patton et al. 2011 ), but still the number of sensors has practical limitations. One approach to obtaining concurrent observations along extended paths is to use remote sensing techniques, which includes both active remote sensing such as radars, lidars, sonic detection and ranging (sodars), acoustic tomography, and scintillometers and passive techniques such as microwave radiometry and spectroscopy. Boundary layer height is another important PBL property that lends itself to remote sensing (e

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J.-L. F. Li, D. E. Waliser, G. Stephens, and Seungwon Lee

Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), CALIPSO , and Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar ( PARASOL ). COSP has been used widely to understand and quantify climate model cloud biases (e.g., Chepfer et al. 2008 ; Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2008 , 2011 ; Zhang et al. 2010 ; Kay et al. 2012 ; Kodama et al. 2012 ; Nam and Quaas 2012 ). A key step of obtaining an accurate top

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M. Haeffelin, S. Crewell, A. J. Illingworth, G. Pappalardo, H. Russchenberg, M. Chiriaco, K. Ebell, R. J. Hogan, and F. Madonna

stations (elastic channel at 1064, 532, and 355 nm; Raman channels at 532 and 355 nm; plus a depolarization channel at 532 nm). (A complete list of stations can be found at www.earlinet.org . The locations of these stations are shown as red stars in Fig. 29-1 .) Lidar observations within the network are performed on a regular schedule of one daytime measurement per week around noon, when the boundary layer is usually well developed, and two nighttime measurements per week, with low background light

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Roger Marchand

as the Aqua platform, making observations separated by less than 2 min, and are controlled carefully so that the narrow radar and lidar beams gather data from overlapping ground points about 90% of the time. These three satellites, along with the NASA Aura and Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 ( OCO-2 ) satellites, the French Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences Coupled with Observations from a Lidar ( PARASOL ) satellite, and the Japanese Global Change

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D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, and H. E. Revercomb

instruments (e.g., Raman lidars, global positioning systems, and microwave radiometers). However, because of the critical need to measure water vapor with the precision necessary to improve the accuracy of radiative transfer models, the program decided to deploy multiple instruments sensitive to water vapor at each site. This strategy provided opportunities to compare the different technologies and develop new methods to combine observations to create more accurate water vapor products. This chapter

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Matthew D. Shupe, Jennifer M. Comstock, David D. Turner, and Gerald G. Mace

supercooled water cloud determined by lidar measurements. [Figure from Wang et al. (2004) , courtesy of the Journal of Applied Meteorology .] A final class of multisensor retrievals is the combined sensor, all-cloud, all-condition retrieval suite that is designed for operational application to all observations made over extended time periods. Such suites not only rely upon multiple sensors but also combine a number of different cloud retrieval techniques that may be designed for specific conditions. ARM

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Allison McComiskey and Richard A. Ferrare

AMF-2 sites. A very recent addition includes three Doppler lidars enabling the 3D mapping of aerosol properties. f. Modeling, quality measurement experiments, and value-added products Early modeling activities associated with ARM provided information where measurements were lacking. Empirically based estimates of large-scale aerosol radiative forcing were impossible due to the dearth of observations of various anthropogenic species. Many studies extrapolated from known properties of sulfate

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