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William B. Rossow and Yuanchong Zhang

distribution functions for discriminating between cloud and aerosol in lidar backscatter data. J. Geophys. Res. , 109 , D15202 . doi:10.1029/2004JD004732 . Luo , Z. , and W. B. Rossow , 2004 : Characterizing tropical cirrus life cycle, evolution, and interaction with upper-tropospheric water vapor using Lagrangian trajectory analysis of satellite observations. J. Climate , 17 , 4541 – 4563 . Mace , G. G. , R. Marchand , Q. Zhang , and G. L. Stephens , 2007 : Global hydrometeor

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Christine C. W. Nam and Johannes Quaas

are able to provide global coverage, are a particularly valuable source of data for evaluations of general circulation models. This paper aims to evaluate how well the ECHAM5 atmospheric GCM represents clouds and precipitation in the present climate using the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations ( CALIPSO ) and CloudSat satellites. CALIPSO and CloudSat are polar-orbiting satellites hosting active lidar and radar instruments. Together they provide the first

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Laura D. Riihimaki, Sally A. McFarlane, and Jennifer M. Comstock

tropical midlevel clouds. Previous studies indicate that tropical midlevel clouds are different than their counterparts in midlatitudes and polar regions in their properties, including frequency, thickness, and phase. Zhang et al. (2010) found higher frequencies of thin midlevel clouds in Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations ( CALIPSO ) night overpasses than during daytime overpasses. This difference was substantially higher in the tropics than in other regions

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Adrien Lacour, Helene Chepfer, Matthew D. Shupe, Nathaniel B. Miller, Vincent Noel, Jennifer Kay, David D. Turner, and Rodrigo Guzman

radiation for cloud detection, which compromises the accuracy of cloud detection over iced or snow-covered surfaces ( Liu et al. 2010 ; Stubenrauch et al. 2012 ). Available since 2006, active remote sensing observations from spaceborne radar and lidar provide the opportunity for a cloud detection that is robustly independent of surface characteristics ( Kay and L’Ecuyer 2013 ; Mioche et al. 2015 ). Spaceborne lidar observations also provide the opportunity to accurately retrieve cloud phase ( Cesana

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Catherine M. Naud, Anthony Del Genio, Gerald G. Mace, Sally Benson, Eugene E. Clothiaux, and Pavlos Kollias

and geographical variations suggest a dependence on environmental state that could result in a contribution to cloud feedback in a climate change. Here, we use ground-based radar and lidar observations in conjunction with information on the state of the atmosphere derived from meteorological reanalyses to investigate the impact of large-scale dynamics and atmospheric state on cloud overlap. Section 2 describes the various datasets used in this study, briefly presents the method, and discusses

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Jing-Wu Liu, Shang-Ping Xie, Joel R. Norris, and Su-Ping Zhang

Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations ( CALIPSO ) satellite was launched on 28 April 2006 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the French Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES) to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on Earth’s radiation budget and climate ( Winker et al. 2009 ). A selective, iterated boundary location algorithm is used to detect cloud layers from the lidar backscatter signals ( Vaughan et al. 2009 ). CALIPSO provides a cloud-layer product with

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B. Gasparini, A. Meyer, D. Neubauer, S. Münch, and U. Lohmann

, 5751 – 5758 , . 10.5194/acp-9-5751-2009 Cziczo , D. J. , and Coauthors , 2013 : Clarifying the dominant sources and mechanisms of cirrus cloud formation . Science , 340 , 1320 – 1324 , . 10.1126/science.1234145 Davis , S. , and Coauthors , 2010 : In situ and lidar observations of tropopause subvisible cirrus clouds during TC4 . J. Geophys. Res. , 115 , D00J17, . 10

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Yali Luo, Renhe Zhang, Weimiao Qian, Zhengzhao Luo, and Xin Hu

precipitation radar (PR) data for the Himalayan and South Asian region. Their results indicate weaker convection over the plateau than the south slope of the plateau and the southern Asian monsoon region. As major components of the A-Train satellite constellation ( Stephens et al. 2002 ), the CloudSat and Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO; Winker et al. 2003 ) satellites were launched in April 2006 ( Stephens et al. 2008 ), probing nearly the same volumes of the

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Shannon Mason, Christian Jakob, Alain Protat, and Julien Delanoë

observations have presented a new opportunity to improve our understanding of Southern Ocean clouds; recent studies have used radar and lidar profiles to produce detailed climatologies and vertical profiles of Southern Ocean clouds in terms of cloud microphysics and macrophysics ( Mace 2010 ; Huang et al. 2012a , b ; Verlinden et al. 2011 ). A useful approach to identifying and distinguishing between cloud processes or properties is to group self-similar cloud scenes based on passive satellite

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Yulan Hong, Guosheng Liu, and J.-L. F. Li

cirrus or on ice clouds in certain regions such as in the tropics. For instance, Sun et al. (2011) studied subvisual ice clouds (optical depth τ < 0.3) using a synergy of measurements from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations ( CALIPSO ). They demonstrated that these thin ice clouds have a diurnal mean SW radiative effect of −2.5 W m −2 and

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