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Alfred J. Kalyanapu, A. K. M. Azad Hossain, Jinwoo Kim, Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and C. K. Shum

calibration process highlighted the topographic representation issues associated with NED DEM and topographic lidar-derived DEMs. The model was calibrated by using observed flood stage and by using spatial inundation extent–derived SAR and Landsat satellite observations. Lidar-derived DEM adjusted by raising levees by 7 m near the Rancho Cardova region and the upstream section of American River deepened by 4 m, which resulted in a closer match of simulated flood depths and flood extent with the observed

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Brandon L. Parkes, Hannah L. Cloke, Florian Pappenberger, Jeff Neal, and David Demeritt

than the actual water level because of capillary action. Fewtrell et al. ( Fewtrell et al. 2011 ) went further with their analysis, comparing wrack and water marks not only against each other but also with the peak water height recorded by a nearby river gauge. They suggested the mean difference between proximate observations to be 0.1 m, which is within the accuracy of the DEM, although they did find greater average differences when comparing wrack marks to water marks ( Fewtrell et al. 2011

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Ayan H. Chaudhuri and Rui M. Ponte

the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ( Kanamitsu et al. 2002 ), and the 15-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-15) ( Gibson et al. 1997 ) and ERA-40 ( Uppala et al. 2005 ) products. Comparisons against observations from the Arctic have revealed, however, major problems in each reanalysis: large errors exist in many variables including near-surface air temperature, specific humidity, and wind speed and direction ( Walsh and Chapman 1998 ; Tjernström and

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Amanda Markert, Robert Griffin, Kevin Knupp, Andrew Molthan, and Tim Coleman

, 2113 – 2136 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<2113:APOHLS>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<2113:APOHLS>2.0.CO;2 Bergen , K. , and Coauthors , 2009 : Remote sensing of vegetation 3-D structure for biodiversity and habitat: Review and implications for lidar and radar spaceborne missions . J. Geophys. Res. , 114 , G00E06 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JG000883 . Bluestein , H. B. , 1992 : Synoptic-Dynamic Meteorology in Midlatitudes: Observations and Theory of Weather

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Eugene S. Takle, Daniel A. Rajewski, and Samantha L. Purdy

: On the impact of wind farms on a convective atmospheric boundary layer . Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 157 , 81 – 96 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-015-0049-1 . 10.1007/s10546-015-0049-1 Lundquist , J. K. , and Coauthors , 2014 : Lidar observations of interacting wind turbine wakes in an onshore wind farm. Proc. EWEA 2014 , Barcelona, Spain, EWEA, 7 pp., https://www.nrgsystems.com/assets/resources/Lidar-observations-of-interacting-wind-turbine-wakes-Whitepaper.pdf . Machefaux , E. , G. C

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Min Chen and Qianlai Zhuang

primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP); 4) NPP without N limitation (NPPsat); 5) inorganic N in soil (Nav); and 6) N uptake of vegetation (NUPTAKE). Parameters associated with carbon and nitrogen fluxes in TEM are sequentially adjusted until all carbon and nitrogen pools, as well as annual GPP and NPP, match the observations. Here, we focus on six key parameters that are identified from our previous sensitivity study ( Tang and Zhuang 2009 ). These parameters are C max

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Xuebin Yang

savanna ecosystems. For instance, Urbazaev et al. (2015) calibrated synthetic aperture radar (SAR)-based woody plant cover models with high-resolution airborne lidar data for a small savanna area in southern Africa. However, this method may not be applicable for large savanna areas due to the limited coverage and availability of high-resolution lidar data. Brandt et al. (2016) mapped the fractional woody plant cover of Sahelian drylands of Africa with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

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J. Marshall Shepherd

More specifically, the following observations systems are requirements that would be valuable. 6.1.1. Land use A continuation of Landsat quality data records and inventories of land-use and land-cover change or extension of Landsat-type measurements to geosynchronous orbit. Improved observations and representation of urban canopies and buildings and the possible use of aircraft- and satellite-based synthetic aperture or lidar technology ( Burian et al. 2004b ) discuss recent applications of lidar

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Mark R. Jury and América R. Gaviria Pabón

aerosol profiles based on lidar extinction at 0.532–1.064 μ m ( Winker et al. 2007 ; Amiridis et al. 2015 ). Monthly CO time series were formed by averaging the 900-hPa MOPITT and MERRA-2 values over the southern Amazon, 5°–15°S, 50°–70°W, in the period 2000–18, and then calculating the mean annual cycle. All-year and dry-season patterns were analyzed, and vertical sections of CO concentration and NCEP2 circulations were averaged over 55°–65°W and 7°–13°S. To understand how variations in southern

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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

. O. Ao , and K. Li , 2010 : Estimating climatological planetary boundary layer heights from radiosonde observations: Comparison of methods and uncertainty analysis . J. Geophys. Res. , 115 , D16113 , doi: 10.1029/2009JD013680 . Shaw , W. J. , M. S. Pekour , R. L. Coulter , T. J. Martin , and J. T. Walters , 2007 : The daytime mixing layer observed by radiosonde, profiler, and lidar during MILAGRO . Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. , 7 , 15 025 – 15 065 , doi: 10.5194/acpd-7

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