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Mircea Grecu, William S. Olson, Stephen Joseph Munchak, Sarah Ringerud, Liang Liao, Ziad Haddad, Bartie L. Kelley, and Steven F. McLaughlin

1. Introduction The primary goal of the GPM mission is to provide uniformly calibrated precipitation observations at every location around the world at relatively high (three hourly) temporal resolution ( Hou et al. 2008 ). Given this goal, GPM combined radar–radiometer precipitation estimates are of paramount importance to the GPM mission, as they will ultimately lead to the production of the high-quality databases of precipitation and associated brightness temperatures needed to develop

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S. Joseph Munchak, Robert Meneghini, Mircea Grecu, and William S. Olson

) generally use the SRT PIA along with microwave radiances to constrain the precipitation profile (indeed, PIA can be the dominant constraint because of its high resolution relative to the passive microwave footprint, especially when the reliability factor is large). These algorithms also require knowledge of the surface emissivity in order to forward model the brightness temperatures (Tb) for comparison to observations. Since emission and reflection are related processes, it is logical for a combined

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Atsushi Hamada and Yukari N. Takayabu

accurate information on which to base estimates of global energy and water budgets. Based on observations from spaceborne cloud radar and lidar, which can detect lighter precipitation than the TRMM PR, Trenberth et al. (2009) suggested increasing the precipitation amounts derived from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project ( Adler et al. 2003 ) by an arbitrary 5%, to obtain consistency between global radiation budgets and evaporation. Lin and Hou (2012) investigated precipitation over the

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Takuji Kubota, Shinta Seto, Masaki Satoh, Tomoe Nasuno, Toshio Iguchi, Takeshi Masaki, John M. Kwiatkowski, and Riko Oki

1. Introduction The Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) on board the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory was launched in February 2014 ( Hou et al. 2014 ; Skofronick-Jackson et al. 2017 ). The DPR expands the coverage of observations to include higher latitudes than those that are obtained by the Precipitation Radar (PR) on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) ( Kummerow et al. 1998 ; Kozu et al. 2001 ). In addition, the DPR measures precipitation

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