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Kaoru Sato and Motoyoshi Yoshiki

hand, our knowledge of gravity wave sources and properties in the polar region is very much limited because collecting the observations is generally difficult because of harsh natural environments. Gravity wave effects in the polar region are considered a possible key for solving the cold bias in the polar stratosphere, which is one of significant remaining issues of climate models. Moreover, gravity waves in the polar region have an important role in ozone chemistry, which is not observed in the

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Dong L. Wu and Stephen D. Eckermann

. A. , 1999 : Enhanced and inhibited gravity wave spectra. J. Atmos. Sci. , 56 , 1344 – 1352 . Whiteway , J. A. , and A. I. Carswell , 1994 : Rayleigh lidar observations of thermal structure and gravity wave activity in the high Arctic during a stratospheric warming. J. Atmos. Sci. , 51 , 3122 – 3136 . Wu , D. L. , 2001 : Horizontal wavenumber spectra of MLS radiance fluctuations. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. , 63 , 1465 – 1477 . Wu , D. L. , 2004 : Mesoscale gravity wave

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James J. Riley and Erik Lindborg

asymptotically weaker with increasing wavenumber and the spectrum approaches the spectrum of isotropic Kolmogorov turbulence. According to the established interpretation, the spectrum to the left of the minimum, which follows a k −1 υ behavior for more than one decade, is a spectrum of weakly nonlinear internal gravity waves, although strong nonlinear effects may not be negligible in the neighborhood of the minimum ( Müller et al. 1986 ; Lindborg and Riley 2007 ). The observations reported in Fig. 1 are

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Yonghui Lin and Fuqing Zhang

clouds in the summer middle atmosphere: A comparison of lidar measurements and ray modeling of gravity waves over Sondrestrom, Greenland. J. Geophys. Res. , 109 . D10103, doi:10.1029/2002JD002783 . Griffiths , M. , and M. J. Reeder , 1996 : Stratospheric inertia-gravity waves generated in a numerical model of frontogenesis. I: Model solutions. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 122 , 1153 – 1174 . Guest , F. M. , M. J. Reeder , C. J. Marks , and D. J. Karoly , 2000 : Inertia

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