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Stephen D. Eckermann, Dave Broutman, Jun Ma, James D. Doyle, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Katrina Bossert, Bifford P. Williams, David C. Fritts, and Ronald B. Smith

has disappeared, with northeastern wave structure weakly visible but showing evidence of breakdown into smaller-scale instability structures. Correlative Na lidar observations were not available for these inbound transects. Fig . 18. Presentation of AMTM (a)–(c) airglow and (d)–(f) temperature imagery as in Fig. 5 , but showing results for Auckland Island transects from (left) 0945–1010, (center) 1015–1050, and (right) 1105–1125 UTC. b. Fourier solutions The 1000 UTC wave field in Fig. 17d

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Qingfang Jiang, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, and Bifford P. Williams

far to the southeast with significant amplitude at 15 km, but do at 45 km. This is consistent with the RF07 observations in Fig. 5 , which showed strong wave responses at 12 km only for the flight leg close to the terrain (cf. Figs. 5d and 5g ), whereas both AIRS and the lidar data showed strong wave responses near 45 km on all flight legs ( Figs. 5b,c,e,f ). Fig . 7. Plan views of w (color shading) and wind vectors at (a) 4 km (interval: 0.05 m s −1 ), (b) 9 km (interval: 0.02 m s −1 ), (c

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Tyler Mixa, Andreas Dörnbrack, and Markus Rapp

simulations from CARMA 2D with AIM observations . J. Geophys. Res. , 117 , D20104 , . Chen , C. , and X. Chu , 2017 : Two-dimensional Morlet wavelet transform and its application to wave recognition methodology of automatically extracting two-dimensional wave packets from lidar observations in Antarctica . J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. , 162 , 28 – 47 , . 10.1016/j.jastp.2016.10.016 Clark , T. L. , 1977 : A

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Johnathan J. Metz, Dale R. Durran, and Peter N. Blossey

lidar at Lauder. Hokitika is upstream of the spine of the Southern Alps and is therefore upstream of any trapped waves, and, as noted in Kaifler et al. (2015) , the Rayleigh lidar is unreliable below 28-km altitude due to potential contamination by stratospheric aerosols. Therefore, we regrettably proceed with analysis of this case without observations. a. Simulation configuration The simulation was conducted using version 3.8.1 of the Advanced Research version of WRF (WRF-ARW) Model ( Skamarock et

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Ronald B. Smith and Christopher G. Kruse

many clever methods have been devised to observe gravity waves [e.g., balloon soundings, vertically pointing lidar and frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar, and limb and nadir infrared detection from satellites], they usually observe only one or two physical variables. For example, recent advances in superpressure balloon technology ( Vincent and Hertzog 2014 ) provide good horizontal structure of pressure and wind, but vertical air motion must be inferred and temperature is not

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Ronald B. Smith, Alison D. Nugent, Christopher G. Kruse, David C. Fritts, James D. Doyle, Steven D. Eckermann, Michael J. Taylor, Andreas Dörnbrack, M. Uddstrom, William Cooper, Pavel Romashkin, Jorgen Jensen, and Stuart Beaton

most active wave season and region in the world, zonally averaged MFs estimates at z = 20-km range from 2 to 18 mPa. While satellites, superpressure balloons, and radiosondes provide better spatial and temporal coverage of gravity waves, the most detailed wave observations come from aircraft transects through wave fields, capturing the full spectrum. Physical studies of wave generation and propagation require these targeted high-resolution observations. Furthermore, airborne wave detection has

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Christopher G. Kruse and Ronald B. Smith

stability as This quantity can also be evaluated regionally by replacing by . Gravity wave temperature perturbations have been observed remotely from space ( Eckermann and Preusse 1999 ; Alexander et al. 2009 ) and from ground-based lidar ( Duck et al. 2001 ) and used to estimate potential energy and momentum flux. The gravity wave kinetic energy is the pointwise or smoothed quadratic quantity which for hydrostatic waves can be approximated by . In simple vertically propagating waves in a

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