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H. Bellenger, K. Yoneyama, M. Katsumata, T. Nishizawa, K. Yasunaga, and R. Shirooka

. We will first diagnose the local and instantaneous moisture tendency in the direct vicinity of the cloud (a few tens of minutes and a few kilometers) before evaluating the moisture tendency on the mesoscale (a few hours and 10–100 km). Thus, we take advantage of the collocated high-frequency observations of cloud populations by C-band-scanning Doppler radar and lower-tropospheric moisture profiles by a high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) onboard the Research Vessel (R/V) Mirai . For technical

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David M. Zermeño-Díaz, Chidong Zhang, Pavlos Kollias, and Heike Kalesse

al. 2000 ). Data from Manus also included observations from a microwave radiometer (MWR), upper-air soundings, a micropulse lidar (MPL), a ceilometer, and optical rain gauges. Other data used are rainfall estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B42v7; 0.25° × 0.25°; Kummerow et al. 2000 ); rainfall, specific humidity, and its physical tendency term from the operational analysis (0.56° × 0.56°) of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) prepared for

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Ji-Eun Kim, Chidong Zhang, George N. Kiladis, and Peter Bechtold

1. Introduction During the Dynamics of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) 1 field campaign ( Yoneyama et al. 2013 ), two quadrilateral sounding arrays were formed with six sites (two ships and four islands) over the equatorial central Indian Ocean ( Fig. 1 ). Intensive sounding observations (eight per day) were taken during the special observing period (SOP) of 1 October–15 December 2011 from the arrays, which were reduced to triangles for short periods of ship port calls and after the SOP

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H. Bellenger, R. Wilson, J. L. Davison, J. P. Duvel, W. Xu, F. Lott, and M. Katsumata

. Fukao , F. Dalaudier , and M. Crochet , 2002 : Strong mixing events observed near the tropopause with the MU radar and high-resolution balloon techniques . J. Atmos. Sci. , 59 , 2885 – 2896 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<2885:SMEONT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<2885:SMEONT>2.0.CO;2 Luce , H. , T. Takai , T. Nakamura , M. Yamamoto , and S. Fukao , 2010a : Simultaneous observations of thin humidity gradients in the lower troposphere with a Raman lidar and the very

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Weixin Xu and Steven A. Rutledge

: Interaction of tropical deep convection with the large-scale circulation in the MJO . J. Climate , 23 , 1837 – 1853 , doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI3240.1 . Virts , K. S. , J. M. Wallace , Q. Fu , and T. P. Ackerman , 2010 : Tropical tropopause transition layer cirrus as represented by CALIPSO lidar observations . J. Atmos. Sci. , 67 , 3113 – 3129 , doi: 10.1175/2010JAS3412.1 . Vitart , F. , and F. Molteni , 2010 : Simulation of the Madden–Julian oscillation and its teleconnections in the

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, James H. Ruppert Jr., and Masaki Katsumata

. Sci. , 67 , 3113 – 3129 , doi: 10.1175/2010JAS3412.1 . Virts , K. S. , J. M. Wallace , Q. Fu , and T. P. Ackerman , 2010 : Tropical tropopause transition layer cirrus as represented by CALIPSO lidar observations . J. Atmos. Sci. , 67 , 3113 – 3129 , doi: 10.1175/2010JAS3412.1 . Waite , M. L. , and B. Khouider , 2010 : The deepening of tropical convection by congestus preconditioning . J. Atmos. Sci. , 67 , 2601 – 2615 , doi: 10.1175/2010JAS3357.1 . Wang , J. , H. L

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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Richard H. Johnson

.1175/2008BAMS2499.1 . Virts , K. S. , and J. M. Wallace , 2010 : Annual, interannual, and intraseasonal variability of tropical tropopause transition layer cirrus . J. Atmos. Sci. , 67 , 3097 – 3112 , doi: 10.1175/2010JAS3413.1 . Virts , K. S. , J. M. Wallace , Q. Fu , and T. P. Ackerman , 2010 : Tropical tropopause transition layer cirrus as represented by CALIPSO lidar observations . J. Atmos. Sci. , 67 , 3113 – 3129 , doi: 10.1175/2010JAS3412.1 . Waite , M. L. , and B

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