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David B. Parsons, Kevin R. Haghi, Kelton T. Halbert, Blake Elmer, and Junhong Wang

dynamical relationship among density currents, bores, and the nocturnal environment utilizing observations taken during the International H 2 O Project (IHOP_2002; Weckwerth et al. 2004 ). Through an application of a variant of hydraulic theory, Haghi et al. (2017) were able to show that as the night progressed, the interaction between convective outflows and the nocturnal environment tended to increasingly fall within a partially blocked flow regime where atmospheric bores would be generated. This

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Shushi Zhang, David B. Parsons, and Yuan Wang

elevated layer can be neutral, as in many idealized studies, or weakly stable as is sometimes observed. 2. Observational analysis The MCS took place on 11–12 June 2015 during PECAN intensive observing period (IOP) 9. The surface observations at 2107 local standard time (LST) 11 June ( Fig. 2 ) depict a quasi-stationary front near where convection first formed. The front separated warm, moist air with temperatures generally exceeding ~28°C with dewpoints of ~19°C from cooler, drier air to the north. The

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Alan Shapiro, Evgeni Fedorovich, and Joshua G. Gebauer

Hays, KS. Among the observational platforms were research aircraft, the NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) S-Pol Ka radar (S-Pol), mobile Doppler radars, Doppler lidars, Raman lidars, ceilometers, micropulse lidars (MPLs), water vapor differential absorption lidars (WV-DIALs), sodars, wind profilers, and radiosondes. Data were gathered in 31 Intensive Observing Periods (IOPs) and 12 Unofficial Field Operations (UFOs), 5 each with a focus on MCSs, bores, CI, or LLJs. Only seven IOPs were LLJ or

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Thomas R. Parish

of over 20 m s −1 after midnight. Although Means (1954) previously described an individual LLJ event, the Great Plains Turbulence Research Program provided the first extended period of observations of the LLJ. In the six decades since that field study, the LLJ has been documented extensively through measurements from pilot balloons, radiosondes/rawinsondes, aircraft, wind profilers, and lidar (e.g., Hoecker 1963 ; Bonner 1968 ; Parish et al.1988 ; Frisch et al. 1992 ; Mitchell et al. 1995

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