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Young-Kwon Lim, Robin M. Kovach, Steven Pawson, and Guillaume Vernieres

, subsurface ocean water, WWBs, and the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) activity ( Kessler et al. 1995 ; Yu and Rienecker 1998 ). These factors are examined in the context of their role in determining the growth and strength of the El Niño events. 2. Data The present study will perform this investigation utilizing the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications version 2 (MERRA-2; Gelaro et al. 2017 ), the new global reanalysis dataset developed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

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Gloria L. Manney and Michaela I. Hegglin

preclude those changes being related to climate change impacts that may themselves be correlated with ENSO changes. Several other modes of natural variability, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, Arctic Oscillation, southern annular mode, quasi-biennial oscillation, Pacific decadal oscillation, and Madden–Julian oscillation, may also be associated with changes in the upper-tropospheric jets on decadal or longer time scales (e.g., Thompson et al. 2000 , 2011 ; Overland and Wang 2005 ; Woollings

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