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Andreas Schlueter, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, and Peter Vogel

( Matsuno 1966 ). Two other major wave types have been observed in the tropical belt that are not obtained from the shallow-water equations: the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 ) and westward traveling tropical disturbances (TDs) including easterly waves ( Riehl 1945 ). All these waves are collectively termed “tropical waves” in this paper. The spatiotemporal scales range from planetary and 30–90 days in the case of the MJO to synoptic and 1–3 days in the case of inertio

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Andreas Schlueter, Andreas H. Fink, and Peter Knippertz

variability over northern tropical Africa. The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is a wave mode that is not predicted by the shallow-water equations but shares several properties with Kelvin waves ( Madden and Julian 1971 ; Roundy 2012 ). It is a global mode with highest activity over the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The MJO modulates the occurrence of tropical rain clusters on the intraseasonal time scale and its influence has been documented for northern tropical Africa (e.g., Matthews 2004 ; Pohl et al

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Roderick van der Linden, Andreas H. Fink, Joaquim G. Pinto, and Tan Phan-Van

orography of the central Vietnamese coast caused catastrophic rainfall, reaching or exceeding the values observed in the Quang Ninh Province event. For example, in the city of Hue more than 700 mm of rainfall was measured in a 3-day period related to the combined influence of a tropical disturbance and the Madden–Julian oscillation ( Wu et al. 2012 ). Among the above-cited studies, Wu et al. (2011) is the only one describing an extreme rainfall event near our study region in the Red River Delta. It

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Peter Vogel, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Andreas Schlueter, and Tilmann Gneiting

-scale tropical waves, such as Kelvin and equatorial Rossby waves or the Madden–Julian oscillation, on convective activity. Pohl et al. (2009) confirm the relation between the Madden–Julian oscillation and rainfall over West Africa, and Vizy and Cook (2014) demonstrate an impact of potential extratropical wave trains on Sahelian rainfall. Statistical models based on spatiotemporal characteristics of rainfall and extended by such large-scale predictors seem a promising approach for improving precipitation

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Jacopo Riboldi, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, and Heather M. Archambault

on trough deceleration and ridge building is intertwined with the effect of “adiabatic” processes like baroclinic development: these two components cooperate synergistically, and it is difficult to clearly separate their contributions to the downstream impact of ET (e.g., Archambault et al. 2015 ). A detailed analysis of the impact of the mean state on atmospheric blocking downstream of ET lies outside the scope of the current study. Low-frequency modes as ENSO, the Madden–Julian oscillation

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Stephan Rasp, Tobias Selz, and George C. Craig

deterministic parameterizations in which errors grow too slowly ( Selz and Craig 2015a ); and in global climate simulations, precipitation variability and tropical wave activity, such as the Madden–Julian oscillation, are improved ( Wang et al. 2016 ; Wang and Zhang 2016 ). Recently, Sakradzija et al. (2015) extended the approach to shallow convection, which improves coupling the resolved model dynamics ( Sakradzija et al. 2016 ). For all its benefits, the CC06 theory is based on strongly simplifying

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